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(2010-07-22 12:19:18)

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History: Treaty Brings Quick End to Spanish-American War



Written by Frank Beardsley
The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines
The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The Spanish-American War took place in the late eighteen hundreds during the administration of President William McKinley.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:欢迎收听建国史话--VOA中的美国历史。西--美战争是在19世纪后期威廉麦金利执政时期爆发的。

On December tenth, eighteen ninety-eight, the United States and Spain signed a treaty in Paris officially ending the war between them. However, the fighting had stopped much earlier.

Spain had made the first move toward peace after its forces surrendered at Santiago, on the Cuban coast. A few weeks before that, the United States Navy had destroyed Spain's Atlantic fleet. The American naval victory ended any chance that Spain could win the war.



This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Steve Ember continue the story of President William McKinley and the Spanish-American War.

这一周在我们的系列里,doug Johnson和Steve Ember继续讲总统威廉麦金利和西-美战争。

DOUG JOHNSON: Late in July, the French ambassador in Washington gave President William McKinley a message from the Spanish government. Spain asked what terms the United States would demand for peace. President McKinley sent an immediate answer.

DOUG JOHNSON:在7月下旬,住在华盛顿的法国大使向总统威廉麦金利递交了西班牙政府的短信。西班牙询问美国对和平要求什么条款。麦金利总统马上就回复了。

Spain, he said, must give up Cuba. It must also give to the United States the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam. And he said Spain must recognize the right of the United States to occupy Manila in the Philippines. The future of the Philippines, he said, would be decided during negotiations on a peace treaty.


STEVE EMBER: McKinley's terms seemed severe to Spain. But Spain had no choice. It could not continue the war. So, ten weeks after war broke out, Spain agreed to stop the fighting and accept the American terms. It signed a peace agreement in Washington on August Twelfth.

STEVE EMBER:麦金利的条款对西班牙来说似乎是苛刻的。但是西班牙并没有选择的余地。它不可能继续战争。所以,在战争爆发后10周的时候,西班牙同意结束战争并接受美国的条款。8月12日,它在华盛顿签署了和平协议。

A Spanish note protested sadly that the agreement took away the last memory of a glorious past. "It expels us from the western hemisphere, which became peopled and civilized through the proud efforts of our fathers."


DOUG JOHNSON: The two countries agreed to meet in Paris to negotiate details of a peace treaty. The talks opened October first. The two sides agreed quickly on the issue of Cuban independence, and an American takeover of Puerto Rico and Guam. But they could not agree on what to do about the Philippines.

DOUG JOHNSON:这两个国家约定在巴黎会见以议定和平条约的细节。谈判在10月1日开始。双方很快对古巴独立、美国接管波多黎各和关岛问题达成共识。但是对菲律宾的处置尚难议定。

At the beginning of the talks, the United States was not sure if it wanted all or only part of the Philippines. At first, President McKinley wanted Spain to give up only Luzon, the main island. Then he decided that the United States should demand all of the Philippines. McKinley explained later how he made this decision.


STEVE EMBER: "I thought first we would take only Manila. Then Luzon. Then other islands, perhaps. I walked the floor of the White House many nights. More than once, I went down on my knees and asked God to help me decide.

STEVE EMBER:“我首先考虑的是我们应该只占领马尼拉。然后想到了吕宋岛。然后也许是其它的岛屿。我在白宫的地板上走了好几个夜晚。不只一次的,我跪着求上帝帮助我做出决定。”

"And one night," said McKinley, "It came to me this way: "That we could not give the Philippines back to Spain. That would be cowardly and dishonorable. We could not turn them over to France or Germany, our trading competitors in Asia. That would be bad business. We could not leave them to themselves.


They were not ready for self-government. So, there was nothing for us to do but to take them all. And to educate the Filipinos, to civilize them, and make Christians of them.


"With that decision," said McKinley, "I went to bed and slept well."


DOUG JOHNSON: Spain, however, did not want to give up the Philippines. It protested that the United States had no right to demand the Islands. True, Americans occupied Manila. But they did not control any other part of the Philippines.

DOUG JOHNSON:可是西班牙不想放弃菲律宾。它反对说美国没有权利要求这个岛。实际上,美国占领了马尼拉。但他们没有占领菲律宾的其它的任何地方。

The two sides negotiated for days. Finally, they reached an agreement. Spain would give all of the Philippines to the United States. In return, the United States would pay Spain twenty-million dollars.


With this dispute ended, the peace treaty was quickly completed and signed. But trouble developed when President McKinley sent the treaty to the United States Senate for approval.


STEVE EMBER: Many Americans opposed the treaty. They thought McKinley was wrong to take the Philippines. Opponents of the treaty included former President Cleveland, industrialist Andrew Carnegie, labor leader Samuel Gompers, writer Mark Twain, and others.

STEVE EMBER:许多美国人反对这个条约。他们认为麦金利要求菲律宾是错误的。这个条约的反对者包括前总统克里夫兰、实业家安德鲁·卡内基、劳工领导人萨缪尔.冈波斯,作家马克吐温和其他的一些人。

A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down
A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down

They organized anti-imperialist groups in many cities to oppose the treaty. They made speeches and published newspapers explaining their opposition. Imperialism, they said, had ruined ancient Rome. And it would ruin the American republic.


They said colonies halfway around the world would be costly to protect. A large army and navy would be needed. They said colonial policies violated important democratic ideas upon which the United States had been built. We went to war with Spain, they said, to free Cuba from its colonial masters...not to make ourselves masters of the Philippines.


DOUG JOHNSON: Republican Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts led the Senate fight for the treaty. The opposition was led by the other Massachusetts senator, George Hoar, also a Republican.

DOUG JOHNSON:麻萨诸塞州的共和党人Henry Cabot Lodge领导参议院为条约而战。反对者的领导人是另一个麻萨诸塞州的议员,George Hoar,也是共和党人。

Senator Lodge appealed to national pride. He urged the Senate not to pull down the American flag. Rejection of the treaty, he said, would dishonor the president and the country. It would show that we are not ready as a nation to enter into great questions of foreign policy.

Lodge 议员呼吁国家荣誉。他极力主张参议院不要降下美国的国旗。抵制条约,他说,对总统和国家都是不光荣的。那样将会显得美国还没有准备好作为一个国家来处理重大的外交问题。

Senator Albert Beveridge of Ohio also spoke in support of the treaty. Senator Beveridge said the Pacific would be of great importance in coming years. Therefore, he said, the power that rules the Pacific will be the power that rules the world. And, with the Philippines, that power is -- and forever will be - the United States.

俄亥俄州的议员Albert Beveridge也发言支持条约。Beveridge议员说,在将来的岁月里,太平洋将会具有非常重要性。所以,他说,统治太平洋的力量就是统治全世界的力量。对菲律宾来说,这个力量就是美国,并且永远是美国。

STEVE EMBER: Senator Hoar spoke strongly against the treaty. He said that taking over the Philippines would be a dangerous break with America's past.

STEVE EMBER:议员Hoar强烈地反对条约。他说占领菲律宾是与美国过去的危险的决裂。

He said the greatest thing the United States had was its tradition of freedom. To take the Philippines, he said, would deny that tradition. It would violate the Constitution and the ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence: the idea that all men are created equal...and that government exists only with the permission of the governed.


DOUG JOHNSON: The Senate vote on the treaty was set for February sixth. It seemed that the opposition had enough votes to reject it. But several things happened before the vote.

DOUG JOHNSON:参议院对条约的投票预定在2月6日。看起来好象是反对方有足够的票数可以抵制条约,但是在投票前发生了一些事情。

William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan, the leader of the Democratic Party, opposed the take-over of the Philippines. But he urged Democratic senators to vote for the treaty. Bryan was looking ahead to the presidential election in nineteen hundred. He believed that the Philippines' takeover would cause the United States nothing but trouble. He could put the blame for all the trouble on the Republicans. Then -- if he was elected president -- the Democrats could give the Philippines their independence.

William Jennings Bryan,民主党领导人,反对占领菲律宾。但他力劝民主党的参议员投票支持这个条约。他在向前看1900年的总统选举,他认为占领菲律宾将除了给美国带来麻烦不会带来别的。他将公众把对这些麻烦的指责统统推给共和党。然后,如果他当选了总统,民主党就会让菲律宾独立。

Bryan succeeded in getting seventeen Democrats and Populists in the Senate to vote for the treaty.

Bryan 成功地让17个民主党和民粹党的议员投票赞成条约。

STEVE EMBER: Two days before the vote was taken, violence broke out in the Philippines. President McKinley, without waiting for the Senate to act, ordered the American military government in Manila to extend its control throughout the Philippines.

STEVE EMBER:在投票前的2天,菲律宾发生了暴乱。麦金利总统,在没有等待参议院行动的情况下,命令马尼拉的美国军事管制政府把它的控制扩展到了整个的菲律宾。

The leader of the Philippine rebels, Emilio Aquinaldo, opposed the order. Rebel forces prepared to fight. On the night of February fourth, thirty thousand rebels attacked American forces around Manila. Sixty Americans were killed, and more than two hundred seventy were wounded. Rebel losses were much higher.

菲律宾叛乱的领导人Emilio Aquinaldo,反对美国总统的这项命令。叛军准备战斗。在2月4日夜晚,3万名叛乱人员在马尼拉周围攻击美国军队。60名美国人被杀害,270多人受伤。叛军的损失更为惨重。

DOUG JOHNSON: News of the rebel attack caused some Senators to change their minds about the Philippines. Some who had opposed the treaty now agreed with the Washington Star newspaper that "the Filipinos must be taught to obey."

DOUG JOHNSON:叛军攻击的消息让许多的参议员改变了他们对菲律宾的看法。许多曾经反对条约的人现在同意了华盛顿星报的观点:“我们必须教会菲律人宾服从。”

Eighty-four Senators were present for the vote on the treaty. To pass, the treaty needed a two-thirds majority -- fifty-six votes. One by one, the Senators voted. Then the count was announced.

Fifty-seven of the lawmakers had voted yes. Only twenty-seven had voted no. The treaty was approved. The Philippines belonged to the United States.



SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Steve Ember. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.


This is program #146 of THE MAKING OF A NATION



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