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建国史话--美国开始远在它的海岸线之外扩展它的影响

(2010-07-08 12:21:51)

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History: US Begins to Extend Its Influence Far Beyond Its Shores

建国史话--美国历史:美国开始远在它的海岸线之外扩展它的影响建国史话--美国开始远在它的海岸线之外扩展它的影响

Written by Frank Beardsley

 

The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898
The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898

 

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States was not concerned much with events in other countries. It was too busy dealing with events inside its own borders. At that time, the nation was recovering from the Civil War. It was expanding to the West. And it was developing industries.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: 欢迎来到建国史话--VOA中特别英语中的美国历史。

在19世纪的下半页,美国并不多去关心别的国家的事情。它国境内的事情已经够忙的了。那时,这个国家正在从内战中恢复,在向西部扩展,并且还在发展它的工业。

As production increased, the United States began trading more and more with other countries. At the same time, it needed a new foreign policy to defend its interests.

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Larry West discuss America's foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds.

随着生产的增长,美国开始越来越多地与别的国家进行贸易。同时,它需要一个新的外交政策来保护它的利益。

这一周在我们的系列里,Maurice Joyce 和 Larry West 讲一讲美国19世纪下半页的外交政策。

LARRY WEST:   A growing number of lawmakers called for a new foreign policy. One was Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts. Lodge said the great nations of the world were taking control of the world's undeveloped areas. As one of the great nations, Lodge said, the United States must not fall out of this line of march.

LARRY WEST:越来越多的立法者呼吁一个新的外交政策。其中之一是麻萨诸塞州的Henry Cagot Lodge。Lodge说世界上的大国将要控制世界上的不发达地区。他还说,美国作为一个大国家,不要在这方面掉队。

Another lawmaker said: "Fate has written our policy. The trade of the world must and shall be ours." Some of these ideas came from the writings of Captain Alfred Mahan. He was head of America's Naval War College.

另一个立法者说:“注定要书写我们的政策。世界的贸易必将是我们的。”许多这样的主张来自于Alfred Mahan上尉,他是美国海战学院的领导人。

Mahan wrote that all the great nations in history had possessed great sea power. He said the United States must build up its sea power, too, if it wanted to be a great nation.

Mahan 写道历史上所有的伟大的国家都拥有过强大的海上力量。他说美国如果想成为一个伟大的国家的话,也必须建立起自己的海上力量,。

Sea power, Mahan said, was more than a strong navy. It was an economy that could produce goods for export. It was trade ships that could carry the goods. It was colonies that could supply raw materials and markets. And it was overseas naval bases that could defend American interests far from home.

海上力量,Mahan说,远远超过了强大的海军。它是可以生产出口产品的经济;它是可以运载的商船;它是可以提供原材料和市场的殖民地;它是可以在国土的远方保护美国利益的海上军事基地。

MAURICE JOYCE:  The Washington Post newspaper described America's growing power this way:

"A new understanding seems to have come upon us, an understanding of our strength. And with it, a new feeling -- we want to show our strength. We are face-to-face with a strange fate. The taste of empire is in the mouth of the people."

HAURICE JOYCE:华盛顿邮报是这样描述美国力量的增长的:“一种新的认识好象已经向我们走来,是一种对我们的力量的认识。在这种认识中,有一种新的感觉--我们想表现我们的力量。我们与陌生的命运面对面。有绝对的支配权的感觉在我们百姓的心里。”

The Washington Post was not speaking for everyone, of course. In fact, many American presidents of the late eighteen hundreds did not have this taste for empire. Yet they were forced to face the future. Changes were coming. And it was their responsibility to guide the nation through the changes.

当然华盛顿邮报并没有说出每个人的心声。事实上,在19世纪后半页的许多美国总统没有这样的“有绝对的支配权的感觉”。他们甚至是被迫面对未来。在常常与各种变化不期而遇的情况下,领导国家应对这些变化是他们的责任。

For this reason, the United States entered into several agreements with foreign lands during the late eighteen hundreds.

正是这样的原因。美国在19世纪后半页在外国土地问题上达成了几个协议。

LARRY WEST:  In eighteen seventy-eight, for example, the United States signed a treaty with Samoa. The United States agreed to help the South Pacific islands settle any differences with other nations. A few years later, the treaty was put to a test.

LARRY WEST:举个例子,在1878年,美国与萨摩亚签订了协议。美国同意帮助南太平洋岛国处理与别国的纠纷。几年后,这个协议进入试行。

A group of Germans living in Samoa forced the islands' ruler from power. They replaced him with a ruler who was more friendly to Germany.

在萨摩亚居住的一些德国人逼迫岛国的统治者交出政权。他们换上了一个对德国友好的人当统治者。

For a time, it seemed the United States and Germany would go to war. But when American warships arrived in Samoa, so did a big storm. The storm smashed both American and German ships. Neither side was left with a force strong enough to fight.

一个时期内,似乎美国和德国要开战了。但是当美国的战船来到的时候,风暴也来的。风暴打碎了美国和德国的船只。双方都没有足够的力量进行战斗了。

In eighteen eighty-nine, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed that Samoa should be an independent kingdom. For ten years, local leaders attempted to establish a strong government. Their efforts failed. In eighteen ninety-nine, Germany took control of Samoa's large western islands. The United States took control of the smaller islands to the east.

在1889年,美国、德国和不列颠同意萨摩亚应该是一个独立王国。当地领导人用了10年的时间试图建立一个坚强的政府。他们的努力失败了。在1899年,德国控制了萨摩亚西部的大岛,美国控制了东部的小岛。

MAURICE JOYCE:  Events in another group of Pacific Ocean islands affected American foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds. These were the Hawaiian islands.

MAURICE JOYCE:在19世纪太平洋的另一个群岛发生的事件也影响了美国的对外政策。那是夏威夷群岛。

 

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii

 

Hawaii was an important port for American trade ships sailing between the United States and China. Good relations between Hawaii and the United States were necessary to keep the port open to American ships.

夏威夷是航行在美国和中国之间的美国商船的重要港口。夏威夷与美国有一个良好的关系,是保证港口向美国船只开放的重要条件。

In eighteen ninety-one, Liliuokalani became queen of Hawaii. She was not friendly to the United States. A group of American businessmen and planters in Hawaii plotted to oust her.

在1891年,Liliuokalani 是夏威夷的女皇。她对美国不友好。住在夏威夷的一些美国商人和种植业者策划驱逐她。

The group started an uprising. Then it called on the United States for protection. Queen Liliuokalani was forced to surrender. The businessmen and planters formed a new government. They wanted Hawaii to be part of the United States. By the end of the century, Congress had made Hawaii an American territory.

这些人发动起义。然后这些人请示美国保护他们。Liliuokalani女皇被迫投降。商人和种植业者组成了新的政府。他们希望夏威夷成为美国的一部分。在世纪结束的时候,国会把夏威夷划入了美国的领土。

LARRY WEST:  The United States also offered to serve as a negotiator in several international disputes during the late eighteen hundreds. One dispute involved Britain and Venezuela.

LARRY WEST:在19世纪末的几起国际争端中,美国也充当谈判人(调停人?)。其中的一起涉及不列颠和委内瑞拉。

Both countries claimed land that bordered the British colony of Guiana on the northeast coast of South America. The situation became tense when gold was discovered in the disputed area. The United States offered to negotiate an agreement. Britain refused the offer. The United States offered again. Britain refused again.

两个国家都对南美最北海岸的英属圭亚那邻近的一块土地宣布了所有权,当在这个有争议的地区发现黄金以后,形势变得紧张起来,美国提议谈判以达成协议。不列颠拒绝这个提议。美国又提议。不列颠又拒绝。

Finally, President Grover Cleveland asked the United States Congress to appoint a committee to decide the border. Before the American committee had a chance to meet, Britain and Venezuela agreed to let an international committee decide.

最后,美国总统格洛佛克利夫兰要求美国国会提名了一个委员会来确定边界。在美国的委员会有幸到达前,不列颠和委内瑞拉同意让一个国际委员会来确定(边界)。

MAURICE JOYCE:  In eighteen ninety-five, Cuban rebels revolted against the colonial government. They tried to destroy the economy of the island by burning private property.

MAURICE JOYCE:在1895年,古巴叛军起义反对殖民地政府。他们试图焚烧私人财产以毁掉这个岛的经济。

Spain sent a large force to Cuba to crush the revolt. Thousands of persons were arrested and put into prison camps. Many died of hunger and disease. Spain was denounced for its cruelty.

西班牙派出大部队到古巴去镇压起义。上千的人被抓起来投入了监狱集中营。许多人被处绞刑或死于疾病。西班牙也因它的残暴而被指责。

LARRY WEST:  It was difficult to get a true picture of what was happening in Cuba. American newspapers sent reporters to the island. But much of what they wrote about never happened. The reporters knew very well that exciting and horrifying stories sold newspapers. So, they made up stories about bloody battles and Spanish cruelty. One incident has become famous in American newspaper history.

LARRY WEST:对于在古巴发生了什么,很难有一个真实的描绘。美国报纸派出记者到了这个岛上。但是他们净写一些不曾发生的事情。这些记者很清楚,令人激动和令人恐惧的故事可以增加报纸的销量。所以,他们编造了一些关于血腥的战斗和西班牙残暴的故事。这些编造当中,有一件有幸成为美国报业史上的一段“佳话”。

 

William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst

 

Publisher William Randolph Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to paint pictures of the fighting. Remington spent several months in Havana. He saw no fighting. He sent Hearst a message. Things were quiet, Remington said. There would be no war. Hearst sent back this answer: "You supply the pictures. I'll supply the war."

出版人William Randolph Hearst 把画家0Frederic Remington 送到古巴去那里的画战争场面。Frederic Remington 在哈瓦那住了几个月。他没有看到战争。就给Hearst写了一个短信。Remington说:古巴很平静,没有战争。Harst 是这样回复的:“你只管提供(战争场面)的画作,我来提供战争。”

MAURICE JOYCE:  The newspaper built up strong public feeling against Spain. Soon, many Americans were calling for war to free Cuba from Spanish rule.

MAURICE JOYCE:报纸引起了公众对西班牙的强烈的反对。很快,许多美国人就呼吁用战争从西班牙的统治下解放古巴。

William McKinley was president. He did not want the United States to become involved. He did, however, offer to help Spain find a solution that would return peace to the island. Spain refused the offer. It attempted to improve the situation in Cuba by itself.

William McKinley是总统,他不希望美国卷入其中。他也确实是这样做的。可是,他提议(让美国)帮助西班牙找到一个方案,来让这个岛恢复和平。西班牙拒绝一这个提议。它试图自己改善古巴的状况。

Spain called home the military commander accused of cruelty. It stopped putting people in prison camps. It offered equal political rights to all Cubans. And it promised them self-rule in the future.

西班牙把被指控残暴的军事指挥人员叫回了家,停止了往监狱里送人,还给所有的古巴人以平等的政治权利,并且答应让他们在将来自治。

LARRY WEST:  President McKinley welcomed Spain's policy statements. He felt Spain should be left alone to honor its promises to the Cuban people. He said the United States would not interfere. At about that time, however, riots broke out in Havana. President McKinley said it was his responsibility to protect the lives and property of Americans living there. So, he sent the battleship "Maine" to Havana.

LARRY WEST:McKinley表示欢迎西班牙的宣布的政策。他认为西班牙应该自己回家来荣耀它对古巴人民做出的承诺。他说美国不会进入。可是也就在这个时候,哈瓦那发生了暴乱,McKinley总统说保护居住在那里的美国人的生命和财产是他的责任。所以,他把“緬因”战船派去了哈瓦那。

During the early weeks of eighteen ninety-eight, President McKinley waited for Spain to act on its promises to Cuba. He saw little progress. Relations between the United States and Spain became tense. Then, on the night of February fifteenth, a powerful explosion shook the battleship Maine in Havana harbor. The ship sank. More than two hundred fifty American sailors were dead.

在1898年的起初几周,McKinley总统等待西班牙践行它对古巴人民的承诺。但是没有看到太大的进展。美国和西班牙的关系开始紧张。后来,在2月15日的一个夜晚,巨大的爆炸震动着泊在哈瓦那港口的“緬因”战船。这艘船沉没了。250多名美国水手失去了生命。

MAURICE JOYCE:  No one knew what caused the explosion on the battleship Maine. The United States said it was an underwater bomb. Spain said it was something on the ship itself.

There was some evidence the explosion was caused by an accident in the ship's fuel tanks. Yet some people in the United States blamed Spain anyway. They demanded war. They cried: "Remember the Maine!"

MAURICE JOYCE:没有人知道什么原因引起了“緬因”战船上的爆炸。美国说是水下炸弹。西班牙说是战船上面的什么东西。有些迹象表明爆炸是由战船燃料箱里的一个故障引起的。无论如何许多美国人还是要遣责西班牙人。他们要求打仗。他们喊叫:“要记住緬因号。 ”

That will be our story next week.

这将是我们下一周的内容。

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:  Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Larry West. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #144 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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