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高中英语词语辨析(二十八)

(2009-11-22 16:19:15)
标签:

高考英语

英语教学

杂谈

分类: 英语学习

fairly,quite,rather

这三个副词都可用来说明形容词和副词的程度,十分容易混淆。

1).fairly意为“相当,还算”,是这一组词中语气最轻的一个。quite为“相当,或多或少地,在某种程度 上”,语气比fairly稍强。rather为“相当,有点,颇”,在这三个副词中语气最强。试比较下列各句: This film is fairly good.这部电影还可以看看。 Your composition is quite good.你的作文还不错。 His homework is rather good.他的作业相当不错。 又如: This book is fairly easy.这本书还算浅易。 He is quite grown up.他差不多长大成人了。 That is rather hard to explain right away.要立即说明是颇有难度的

2).fairly只用于修饰褒义的形容词和副词,如可以说She is fairly clever,不可说She is fairly  foolish。rather主要用于贬义,如rather poor/bad/stupid/ugly,但它也可以用在某些褒义的形容词和副词前,具有比fairly更强烈的褒义,相当于very,如rather good/ well/pretty /clever。另外,若在没有褒贬意义的词前用fairly,表示说话人赞同;若用rather,则表示不赞同。试比较: This soup is fairly hot.这汤蛮热的。 This soup is rather hot.这汤太烫了。 She is fairly tall for her age.就她的年龄来说,她长得算是高了。 She is rather tall for her age.就她的年龄来说,她长得过于高了。

3).rather可与too及比较级连用,而fairly和quite则不可。如: My mother is rather better today.我母亲今天病好多了。 This book is rather too difficult for the juniors and rather too easy for the seniors. 这本书对低年级学生说来未免太难,对高年级学生说来又嫌太容易。

4).quite和rather还可和动词连用,fairly则不可和动词连用。如: This does not quite satisfy me.这没有完全使我满意。 I don't quite follow you.我不大懂你的话。 They rather expected to win the match.他们颇想赢得这场比赛。 I rather like her.我相当喜欢她。

5). quite和rather都可修饰名词,但须放在不定冠词前。如: That was quite an accident.那是一次不太寻常的事故。 It's rather a pity.这真是相当遗憾。当名词前有形容时,quite和rather可放在不定冠词后,也可放在不定冠词前。如:They had a quite good time. 也可说quite a good time。It is a rather cold day. 也可说rather a cold day。

familiar with与familiar to

这两个形容词短语都表示“熟悉”的意思,但用法不同。familiar to表示“(某事)对(某人来说)是熟悉的”意思;因此,句子的主语总是表示事物的名词,介词to后接人称名词或代词的宾格形式。例如:This subject is familiar to us.我们熟悉这个课题。These are the rules that are familiar to every schoolboy.这些是一个学童都熟知的规则。

familiar with则表示“(某人)对(某事)是熟悉的,精通的”的意思。因此,句中的主语总是人称名词或代词,介词with后接事物名词。如:We are all familiar with the three states of matter.我们都熟悉物质的三态。They are familiar with English.他们精通英语。

fall与drop

两者均表示“落下”。fall表示物体由于本身的重量失去平衡或其他原因向下坠落,多为无意识的行为。它是不及物动词。fall也常作连系动词,表示“变得,进入某种状态”。

drop表示物体由高处往低处落下,或让物体落向低处。它既可指有意识的行为,也可指无意识的行为,当指无意识的行为时,可与fall交换使用。drop为及物动词或不及物动词。如:The man fell/dropped from the top of the building.(两者都指无意识的行为。)Her hair falls to her shoulders.(指无意识的行为。)Many trees fell in the storm.(指无意识的行为。)One after another, all three of them fell asleep. fall作连系动词。)He dropped a letter into the post-box.(指有意识的行为。)The enemy plane dropped several bombs.(指有意识的行为。)

famous for与famous as

这两个形容词短语都表示“以……而出名”的意思。但在用法和含义上有异。

famous for 主要有三种用法:1.主语是表示人的名词或代词时,意为“以某种知识技能,作品或特征而出名”。2.主语为地点名词时,表示“以某种特产或特征出名”。3.主语为事物名词时,表示“以其内容,特征,价值等而被人所知”。如:He is famous for his skill in playing football.他因球艺而出名。The area is famous for its green tea.这个地区以产绿茶而著称。Guilin is famous for its beautiful scenery.桂林因美丽的风景而著称。This grammar book is famous for its practical usage.这部语法书以其实用而出名。

famous as 也有三种用法:1.当主语是表示人的名词或代词时,意指“以某种身份或职业而出名”。2.当主语为地点名词时,表示“作为什么产地或地方而出名”。3.当主语为事物名词时,表示“以某种形式而出名”。如:Mark Twin was famous as a children-story writer.马克.吐温作为儿童故事作家而著称。This area is famous as a green tea producing place.这个地区作为绿茶产地而著名。This book is famous as a reference book.这本书作为参考书而出名。 

farther与further

这两个词都是far的比较级形式。1.farther和further都可指具体的距离,即空间时间上的“较远”。如: Let's not go any farther/further.我们别再走了吧。 The service desk is at the farther/further end of the hall.咨询处在大厅稍往里的地方。2.further还可用于抽象的引申义,如时间,程度和数量等,表示“进一步,更进一层”,此时,不能与 farther换用。如: I may be able to give you some further information about it. 关于这个问题,我还可以给你一些 信息。 The problem will be further discussed at the class meeting. 这个问题在班会上还将进一步讨论。 

favourable,favoured,favourite

这三个形容词尽管词根相同,但在意义上有所差异。favourable主要有下列三种意思:1. 赞许 2.有利的 3.讨人喜欢的,良好的。例如:The teacher made a favourable report on the boy's work at school.教师报告说,该生在校成绩优良。It was a favourable time for our trip, since business was light.生意清淡,正是我们旅行的好时光。He made a favourable impression on his future colleagues.他给他未来的同事留下良好的印象。

favoured在表示“有利的(条件或地位等)”的意义时,一般可用favourable代替;有时favourite也有这一含义。此外,它还可表示“受优惠的,优惠的”意思。如:He has gained a favoured (or: favourable/favourite) position.他已取得了有利的地位。This country cannot have the treatment of the most-favoured-nation clause.这个国家不能享有最惠国条款上的待遇。

favourite作形容词时,主要表示“最受人喜欢的”意思。它还可用作名词,表示“最受人喜欢的人或物”。如: My favourite type of food is Chinese food.我最喜欢的食品是中国食品。Who is your favourite novelist?谁是你最喜欢的作家?He is a favourite writer.他是最受人喜欢的作家。This book is a great favourite of mine.这是我最喜欢的一本书。His last son, John, is his favourite.他的小儿子约翰是他最喜欢的。 

far too与too far

1).修饰形容词和副词的too可以被far修饰,以示强调。far too即表示“实在太,过于”的意思。如: The coffee is far too hot.咖啡过于烫了。 He was at the airport far too early.他来飞机场太早了。

2).too far是“太远了,太过分”的意思。在词组结构里,副词too(过于,太)被用来修饰形容词或副词 far。如: It is too far to the music hall.离音乐厅太远了。 You've gone too far. 太过分了。

3).除far以外,too还可以被all, rather, much等修饰,表示“实在太”,或被a bit修饰,表示“有点儿”。如: The holidays were all too short.假期太短了。 You're going much too fast.你走得太快了。 This dress is a bit too small for me.这条裙子对我来说太小了点儿。 

find与find out

find是及物动词,表示“找到,发现”的意思,其后可跟名词,复合结构或that从句。如:I have looked for him several hours, but I haven't found him yet.我找了他好几个小时,但还是没有找到。I found it necessary to learn French if you know English.我发现如果你懂英语的话,有必要学法语。

find out是一个短语动词,表示通过研究,观察或调查等一系列工作后“找出或发现”,其后一般跟名词,代词或从句。如:We soon found out that he was a secret agent.我们很快查明他是个特务。They have found out the truth.他们已经查明了真相。

fast,quick,rapid

这一组形容词表示“快的,迅速的”。

1).fast多指运动着的人或物体本身具有高速度的特点,或指一段时间内持续的快速运动。quick一般用于指迅速的,一瞬间的或短暂的动作与反应,侧重匆忙的含义,不强调速度。它另可指智力方面反应灵敏, 以下例句和短语中的fast和quick都不能相互替换: a fast runner, a fast train, a fast job, a quick turn, a quick answer, be quick about one's  work。又如: The clock is five minutes fast.这只钟快了五分钟。 He was such a fast talker that nobody could understand him.他说话如此之快,以致于没有人能 听懂他的意思。 She is very quick at learning languages.她学语言很快。 He had a quick mind, and answered all the questions put to him by the reporter.他反应很快,回答了记者提出的所有问题。

2).rapid常与fast相互换用,但前者侧重动作本身,后者常指动作中的人或物体。rapid有急促的含义,它所指的动作可能是一个或一连串的。如:rapid progress, rapid pace, rapid practice。又如: The improvement in her health is rapid.她恢复得很快。 This school promised rapid results in the learning of languages.这所学校承诺在语言学习方面见效相当快。

3).这一组词的副词也有同样的区别。如: He speaks fast. Come here quickly! She ran rapidly up the stairs. 

fault与mistake

1).fault作“过失,缺点,毛病”解,指道德、性格和习惯上的弱点或行为上的过失,也指违反某一规定所造成的错误。如: He is still a good boy with all his faults.他尽管有这样那样的过错,但还是一个好孩子。 It was the boy's fault. He didn't obey the traffic rules.是那个孩子不好,是他没有遵守交通规则。

2).mistake作“错误,过失,误会”解,指因认识不足或判断失误而无意中犯下的错误。如: Since a lot of people make mistakes in life, I'll give you a change. 因为很多人在一生中都会犯错误,所以我会给你一个机会。 The mistake was made entirely through your fault.出了这个错完全是由于你的过失。 

for a moment, for the moment, in a moment, at the moment

for a moment常与持续性动词连用,表示“一会儿,片刻”的意思。如:Please wait for a moment.请等一下。He read the paper for a moment and went out.他看了一会儿报纸,就出去了。

for the moment常用于现在时,意为“暂时,目前”。如:Stop discussing for the moment, please.请暂停讨论。Let's leave things as they are for the moment.让我们暂时维持现状吧。

in a moment常与终止性动词连用,一般用于将来时,表示“一会儿,立即,马上”等意义。如:I'll come back in a moment.我马上就回来。He'll meet you in a moment.他一会儿就见你。

at the moment用于现在时,表示“此刻”的意思;用于过去时,表示“那时”的意思。如:I'm busy at the moment.我此刻很忙。I was busy at the moment.我那时很忙。 

festival,holiday,vacation

1).festival意为“节日”,指喜庆日和持续一段时间的文娱活动,如the Spring Festival(春节),the  film festival(电影节),the TV festival(电视节)。

2).holiday为“假日,休息日”,主要指按风俗习惯或法律规定的纪念日及休息日。其复数形式可表示延续一段时间的“假期”,美式英语中则习惯用单数。如:a pleasant Roman holiday (愉快的罗马假日), the Christmas holidays (圣诞节假期),the school holiday (学校的假期)。

3).vacation为“假期”,指放下工作与学习的一段常时间的休息时间,常可用holidays替换。如 a paid  vacation (带薪假期),the winter vacation/holidays (寒假),the summer vacation/holidays  (暑假)。 

fine,good,well

这三个形容`词都表示“好”。

1).fine作“好”解时,程度胜过good。它可以指人的身体安好,还可用来指优秀,高尚,优美,文雅,令人满意,天气晴朗等。它另可表示纤弱,稀薄,细致,精致,单纯等。如fine weather (好天气), fine artist (优秀的艺术家),fine salt (精制盐),fine gold (纯金)。

2).good是一个意义极其广泛的词,几乎可用来指除“健康”以外的所有的“好”,如美好,美丽,良好, 愉快,高明,充分,完全,适当,正确,有效,亲切,有礼貌,精神好及质量好等。如:good days,  good students, a good chance, a good book, good looks。

3).well用作形容词时,只能表示身体和情况的“良好”,即指身体正常或痊愈,情况顺利或处于令人满意的状态,不能用来指工作,学习与劳动等方面的“好”。它着重指一时的或某一段时间的状态。well在句中只能作表语,不能作定语。试比较: He looks good.他看来是个好人。 He looks well.他看来很健康。 I'm feeling very good.我感到情绪很好。 I'm feeling very well.我感到身体很好。又如:The patient didn't feel well after the operation.术后,病人没有感到身体有好转。I am not well. My headaches.我不太舒服,头很疼。Everything is well with us.我们一切都好。All is not well in that mountainous country.那个山村的情况不太好。

if only与only if

由这两个词组引导的条件从句虽然都可以用来表示主句所需要的 "条件",但是两者在表示说话人的语义意图方面却有差异。1. only if 引起的条件状语从句,是一个对“条件”限制更严的“限制性条件状语从句”,表示“只有...(才);只有在...的时候,唯一的条件是...”的意思;与if引起的一般条件句相比,它有一种增强主句语势的作用。例如:He will succeed only if he does his best.他只有尽力而为才能成功。I'll come only if you really need me.只有当你真正需要我的时候,我才来。Only if the case is urgent should you call out the doctor in the middle of the night.只有患者情况紧急时,你才可以在半夜叫医生看病。

if only引导的条件句,通常用来表示说话人对某事所寄予的某种强烈愿望,相当于as long as。它可以独立使用,用来表示由于客观条件限制,为某事不大可能或完全不可能实现而感到惋惜或遗憾的复杂心情,常用虚拟语气。例如:If only I were as clever as you!要是我像你一样聪明该多好啊!If only you had not told Tom what I said, everything would have been all right. 要是你没有把我的话告诉汤姆就好了,那样就不会出什么问题了。It is hard to avoid mistakes; if only they are conscientiously corrected, it will be all right.错误总是难免的,只要认真地改正,也就好了。

if与whether

这两个词都是指“是否”,用来表示犹豫不定,引出包含正反两面的疑问。

1).一般情况下两者可以替换使用,但whether显得正式一些。例如:I am not sure if/ whether the sports meet will be held tomorrow. 我不知道明天是否会举行运动会。

2).但在引导表语从句,同位语从句,在不定式之前,介词之后及句首时,只能用whether。如:The question is whether it is worth doing.问题是这样做是否值得。We had no idea whether he had gone without Jane.我们不知道他有没有带着简一起走。He doesn't know whether to accept the offer or not.他不知道该不该接受帮助。It depends on whether we have enough time to do it. 这取决于我们是否有足够的时间去做这件事。Whether he comes or not doesn't concern me.他来不来与我无关。

需注意,当if置于句首时,只能引导状语从句,表示“假如”,不能引导名词性从句。

3).倘若引导的是一个选择疑问句,则以用whether更为妥当。若要用if引导的话,if和or not中间必须有词语隔开,不能连写。如可以说 I wonder whether/ if he has come or not. 不可以说 I don't care if or not your car breaks down, 而须将if改成whether。

4).有时用if可能会产生歧义,如Tell me if you want the book.可有两种解释:“假如你需要这本书,请告诉我”,或“请告诉我你是否要这本书”。若用whether的话,则只能作第二种解释。

in addition与in addition to

这两个词组都可表示“除了,此外,另,又,还”等意思,用来表示两个事物或动作之间的增补关系。但两者的语法功能和用法不同。

1)in addition是一介词短语,作副词用,相当于词组as well,其后不能跟名词或其他任何成分,一般位于两个句子中间或位于句末。位于两句中时,常用一逗号与句子隔开。例如:There are many shops around the railway station. In addition, there are some newly-built hotels there.火车站附近有很多商店,此外,还有一些新建的旅馆。Aunt Mary gave us sandwiches for our picnic and a bag of cookies in addition. 玛丽舅母为我们去郊游准备了三明治,另外还准备了一袋甜饼。

2) in addition to是一短语介词,其后接名词或代词等作其宾语,意义大体相当as well as和 besides。如:In addition to English, he has to study a second foreign language. 除了英语以外,他还必须学习第二外语。They have one hour to read newspapers in addition to their ordinary work. 除了日常工作以外,他们有一小时读报的时间。

ill与sick

这两个形容词都有“生病的,身体不适”的意思。

ill作上述解释时,通常在句中作表语或补语,不作定语,它的后面可接with和from表示原因。若ill 作“坏的,恶劣的,邪恶的”解时,只能作定语。如:He has long been ill with high fever.他一直在发高烧。That ill woman killed her own daughter.那个坏女人杀了自己的女儿。She became ill from anxiety.她由于焦虑而病倒了。

sick和ill一样,可在句中充当表语或补语,但它还能作定语,保持原意义不变。它作表语或补语时,另有“呕吐,恶心”的意思。sick后可用with表示原因,用for表示“渴望”,用of表示“厌倦,厌恶”等。如:She got 500 yuan a month for looking after the sick man. (此处的sick不能用ill代替。)她照顾这个病人每月可赚五百元。My daughter was sick with a cold.我的女儿是因感冒而病的。He began to feel sick as soon as the ship started to move.船一启航,他就开始晕船了。The little girl is obviously sick for home.很明显,这个小女孩想家了。I am sick of his bad manners.他的不良举止真让我厌恶。The old man was sick of life, and wished he were dead.那个老人对生活感到厌倦,真想死了算了。

intend,mean,propose

这组词都有“打算,有心做某事”之意。

intend:“打算,有...意向,意欲”,指经过考虑后打定主意要做某事或获得某物,常带有坚定的决心。常跟不定式及其复合结构,常用短语:intend for 打算送给/供...使用;intend...as...打算...He explained to her at length what he intend to do in the following week. 他详细地向她解释了下周打算做什么。Having always been musical from an early age, the singer seems to have been intended for the concert stage.那位歌手有音乐天赋,好像生来就是为了登台演唱的。

mean:“打算,想象,有...意图”,不如intend正式,强调心里想做的意思,但不强调决心,短语:mean...for 准备让...做...Everyone believed that it'll be a very suitable match because John and Julia were obviously meant for each other.每个人都认为他们的结合会很般配,因为约翰和朱利亚显然是天生的一对。He shouldn't have done it, of course, but he was thoughtless. And he meant to pay the money back.当然,他本来不该那么做,但他考虑不周到,再说他是打算还钱的。

propose:“打算,建议”,指宣布或明确确定某人的意图,含有公开宣称或清楚这一意图之意。可接名词,动名词,不定式及从句。Summarizing the year's work, the managing director in the company proposed a greater project of the next year.公司的总经理总结了一年的工作,提出了下年度更大的工程计划。Generally speaking, what's reached in the end may be better or worse than what was proposed.一般来说,最终所达到效果总要比计划的好或差。

in advance与in advance of

in advance是介词短语,在句中作副词用,作方式状语,表示“事先,预先,提前”等意。例如:It is desirable that we should read descriptions of particular instruments in advance.我们最好是事先阅读特殊仪器的说明。The iron mine fulfilled the state production plan one month in advance.这个铁矿提前一个月完成了国家生产计划。

in advance of是一短语介词,后接名词或代词作宾语,表示“在...前面,超越”等意。例如:In the parade, the band will march in advance of the football team. 游行中,乐队将走在足球队的前面。Galileo's ideas were in advance of the age in which he lived. 伽利略的想法超越了他所生活的时代。 

in case,in case of,in the case of

in case主要有两种用法:1).用作复合从属连词,引导一个条件状语从句和表示否定意义的目的状语从句,表示“万一,倘若,如果”和“免得,以防”的意思;2).作副词用,在句中充当状语,常位于句末,通常我们可以说just in case,意为“以防万一,为了提防”。例如:You'd better take your umbrella, in case it rains. 你最好带上伞,以防万一下起雨来。It may rain, you'd better take an umbrella just in case. 可能会下雨,你最好拿把伞,以防下雨。The bus is usually on time, but start early, just in case. 这辆公共汽车一般是准时的,但是要早点动身,以防万一。

in case of 是一短语介词,后接名词或代词作宾语,位于句首时,一般表示条件,意为“假使,万一,如果”。位于句末时,一般表示目的,表示“以防”的意思。例如:In case of fire, ring the alarm bell. 万一失火的话,请按警铃。The wall was built along the river in case of floods. 该墙沿河而建,以防水灾。

in the case of 也是一短语介词,后可接名词,代词或动名词作宾语,意思是“对于,就……来说,至于……”。例如:Poverty depresses most people; in the case of my father it was otherwise.贫穷使大多数人垂头丧气,至于我父亲,却不一样。In the case of learning English, we must practise a lot.就学习英语来说,我们必须大量练习。

in a word,in word,in words

in a word 为“总而言之,简而言之”用来表示总结归纳,与in short, in brief意思相同。该结构中的a也可用one代替。例如:His condition is, in a word, becoming worse.他的状况,简而言之,越来越差。Lily is clever, polite and well-behaved. In a word, she is worth praising. 莉莉聪明又懂礼貌,总而言之,值得表扬。

in word为“口头上”,指以口头的形式表示,而并非落实在行动上。它与in deed(行动上)相对。例如:He is a friend in word only.他只是一个普通朋友。I don't want you simply to promise me in word that you will be good. 我不想你只是在口头上答应你会好好干。

in words为“用语言”,指用口头或书面语言的形式表示及描述,它不和行动相对,仅涉及语言文字本身。如:He never expressed his idea in words.他从来不说出自己的想法。The little boy can describe the beauty of the scene in words. 这个小男孩能用语言描述美丽的景色。

in charge,in charge of,in the charge of

in charge是一用作表语或后置定语的介词短语,意为“负责,看管”。句子的主语一般应是表示人的名词或代词,charge可以有形容词修饰。例如:John was in complete charge while the manager was on holiday. 约翰在经理度假时负全责。The person in overall charge was Jones. 总负责人是琼斯。

in charge of和in the charge of都是属于短语介词,其后都接名词或代词作宾语。它们虽然只有冠词之差,但意义却有差异。in charge of表示“管理,看管”的主动意义,因此,句子的主语往往是人。

in the charge of 表示“被... 管理,在...管理之下”的被动意义,句子的主语一般是物,在使用过程中,也可用in one's charge形式。例如:He will be in charge of that work for the time being. 他将暂时负责那项工作。An experienced worker is in charge of the project. 一位经验丰富的工人负责这项工程。The documents are in the charge of Comrade Lee. 文件由李同志保管。

in favour与in favour of

in favour是一介词短语,在句中作表语或名词后置修饰语,意为“受赏识的;受欢迎的”,有被动的含义。例如:That child is clearly in favour ; she had been given an extra biscuit. 那个小孩显然很受宠爱,她多得了一块饼干。The delegation is in favour.代表团受到了欢迎。

in favour of是一短语介词,其后接名词或代词作其宾语,构成介词短语。在句中作表语或名词后置修饰语,表示“赞成,支持”和“有利于...”等意。作后种意义时,该词组可以呈in someone's favour形式。例如:The majority of people are in favour of the proposed legislation. 大多数人赞成已提出来的立法。Those in favour of the new plans put up your hands please. 那些赞成新计划的人请举手。The evidence seems to be in favour of the defendant. 证据看来对被告有利。The exchange rate is in our favour. 兑换率对我们有利。

in one's mind与on one's mind

in one's mind用于表示“想着,考虑”的场合,所想着的事情不带有沉重和焦虑的含义。on one's mind用于表示“惦记,操心,焦虑”的场合,表示心中想的是重要的,严肃的或是不愉快的事情。例如:I wonder what’s in her mind. 我想知道她在想些什么。I turned the question over in my mind. 我反复考虑了这个问题。She has something important on her mind. 她有重要的事情惦记着。There are too many problems on his mind. 他心事重重。

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