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The Story of Mankind 1

(2011-05-22 09:34:31)
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杂谈

The Story of Mankind

by Hendrik van Loon


THE STORY OF MANKIND BY HENDRIK VAN LOON, PH.D. Professor of the Social Sciences in Antioch College. Author of The Fall of the Dutch Republic, The Rise of the Dutch Kingdom, The Golden Book of the Dutch Navigators, A Short Story of Discovery, Ancient Man.


To JIMMIE “What is the use of a book without pictures?” said Alice.


FOREWORD

For Hansje and Willem:


WHEN I was twelve or thirteen years old, an uncle of mine who gave me my love for books and pictures promised to take me upon a memorable expedition. I was to go with him to the top of the tower of Old Saint Lawrence in Rotterdam.

人类的故事

                 房龙 著  刘海 译

                    前言

  汉斯及威廉:

  当我十二三岁的时候,我的那位引导我爱上书籍和图画的舅舅,答应带我做一次永难忘怀的探险——他要我跟他一起上到鹿特丹老圣劳伦斯教堂的塔楼顶上去。

 

And so, one fine day, a sexton with a key as large as that of Saint Peter opened a mysterious door. “Ring the bell,” he said, “when you come back and want to get out,” and with a great grinding of rusty old hinges he separated us from the noise of the busy street and locked us into a world of new and strange experiences.

 

  于是,在一个风和日丽的日子里,教堂司事拿着一把足以与圣彼得的钥匙相媲美的大钥匙,给我俩打开了那扇通往 塔楼的神秘大门。“等你们下楼出来时”他说,“拉拉铃就行啦。”说完,在生锈的铰链发出的吱吱声中,他关上了门,一下子将繁忙街道的喧嚣隔在我们身后,把 我们锁进了一个崭新而陌生的世界里。

 

For the first time in my life I was confronted by the phenomenon of audible silence. When we had climbed the first flight of stairs, I added another discovery to my limited knowledge of natural phenomena--that of tangible darkness. A match showed us where the upward road continued. We went to the next floor and then to the next and the next until I had lost count and then there came still another floor, and suddenly we had plenty of light. This floor was on an even height with the roof of the church, and it was used as a storeroom. Covered with many inches of dust, there lay the abandoned symbols of a venerable faith which had been discarded by the good people of the city many years ago. That which had meant life and death to our ancestors was here reduced to junk and rub- bish. The industrious rat had built his nest among the carved images and the ever watchful spider had opened up shop between the outspread arms of a kindly saint.

  在我生命中的头一回,就发觉了“可听见的寂静”这种现象。当我们踏上第一段楼梯时,在我的自然现象的有限知 识里面又增加了另一种经验——可触摸得到的黑暗。一根火柴为我们指引出向上的路。我们上到第二层,第三层,第四层... ...一层层不断往上,数不清是第几层,前面的楼梯却仿佛无穷无尽。最后,我们猛然走进一片巨大的光泽之中。塔楼的这一层与教堂的顶部齐平,用作储藏室, 散乱地堆放着许多古老信仰的圣像。这座城市的善良居民们在很多年前就弃绝了这种信仰,在被抛弃的圣像们身上,积满了厚厚的灰尘。那些对我们的先人意味着生 和死的重要事物,在这里论为了尘埃和垃圾。勤劳的耗子在这些雕像间搭了窝,永远警觉的蜘蛛还在一尊仁慈的圣像伸出的双臂间结了网。

 

The next floor showed us from where we had derived our light. Enormous open windows with heavy iron bars made the high and barren room the roosting place of hundreds of pigeons. The wind blew through the iron bars and the air was filled with a weird and pleasing music. It was the noise of the town below us, but a noise which had been purified and cleansed by the distance. The rumbling of heavy carts and the clinking of horses' hoofs, the winding of cranes and pulleys, the hissing sound of the patient steam which had been set to do the work of man in a thousand different ways--they had all been blended into a softly rustling whisper which provided a beautiful background for the trembling cooing of the pigeons.

  再上一层楼梯,我们终于发现光亮来自这里敞开的窗户。沉重的铁条嵌在巨大的窗户上,其间出入的上百只鸽子把 这个高处不胜寒的地方当成了他们惬意的居所。风透过铁栅吹进来,空气中浸润着一种神秘而令人愉悦的音乐。仔细一听原来那是从我们脚下传来的城市的声音。遥 远的距离将它们过滤得澄澈而干净了。

 

Here the stairs came to an end and the ladders began. And after the first ladder (a slippery old thing which made one feel his way with a cautious foot) there was a new and even greater wonder, the town-clock. I saw the heart of time. I could hear the heavy pulsebeats of the rapid seconds--one--two--three-- up to sixty. Then a sudden quivering noise when all the wheels seemed to stop and another minute had been chopped off eternity. Without pause it began again--one--two--three--until at last after a warning rumble and the scraping of many wheels a thunderous voice, high above us, told the world that it was the hour of noon.

  楼梯到这一层就没有了,再往上必须爬梯子。爬完第一架梯子(它又旧又滑,你必须小心翼翼踩稳每一级)迎接我 们的是一个崭新而伟大的奇迹——城市的时钟。我仿佛看见了时间的心脏,我听见了飞速流逝的时间那沉重的脉搏声,一秒、两秒、三秒,一直到六十秒。这时,随 着一阵猛然的震颤声,所有的齿轮仿佛一齐停止了转动,被从永恒的时间长河中切割了下来。再上一层是许许多多的钟。有忧雅的小钟,还有体形巨大、令人害怕的 巨型大钟。房间正中是一口大钟。当它在半夜敲响,告之某一处大火或洪水的消息时,我总是吓得浑身僵硬、汗不敢出。而现在,大钟却笼罩在寂寞庄严的气氛里, 仿佛正在回思过去600年里,它和鹿特丹人民一道经历了那些欢乐和哀愁。大钟的身边是挂着一些小钟,它们整齐规矩的样子活像老式药店至摆放的大口瓶子

 

On the next floor were the bells. The nice little bells and their terrible sisters. In the centre the big bell, which made me turn stiff with fright when I heard it in the middle of the night telling a story of fire or flood. In solitary grandeur it seemed to reflect upon those six hundred years during which it had shared the joys and the sorrows of the good people of Rotterdam. Around it, neatly arranged like the blue jars in an old-fashioned apothecary shop, hung the little fellows, who twice each week played a merry tune for the benefit of the country-folk who had come to market to buy and sell and hear what the big world had been doing. But in a corner--all alone and shunned by the others--a big black bell, silent and stern, the bell of death.

 

 

Then darkness once more and other ladders, steeper and even more dangerous than those we had climbed before, and suddenly the fresh air of the wide heavens. We had reached the highest gallery. Above us the sky. Below us the city-- a little toy-town, where busy ants were hastily crawling hither and thither, each one intent upon his or her particular business, and beyond the jumble of stones, the wide greenness of the open country.

It was my first glimpse of the big world.

  我们接着往上爬,再度进入一片漆黑当中。此时,梯子也比刚才的更陡峭、更危险。爬着爬着,突然间,我们已经 呼吸到广阔天地的清新空气了。我们到达了塔楼的最高点。头上是高远的碧空,脚下是城市——一个积木搭建的玩具般的城市。人们像蚂蚁似的匆匆来去,人人专注 于自己的心思,忙着自己的事情。远处,在一片乱石堆外,是乡村宽广的绿色田野。

  这是我对辽阔世界的最初一瞥。

 

Since then, whenever I have had the opportunity, I have gone to the top of the tower and enjoyed myself. It was hard work, but it repaid in full the mere physical exertion of climbing a few stairs.

  从此一有机会,我就上到塔楼顶上去自得其乐。登上楼顶是一件很费力气的事情,可我体力上的付出却得到了充分的精神回报。

 

Besides, I knew what my reward would be. I would see the land and the sky, and I would listen to the stories of my kind friend the watchman, who lived in a small shack, built in a sheltered corner of the gallery. He looked after the clock and was a father to the bells, and he warned of fires, but he enjoyed many free hours and then he smoked a pipe and thought his own peaceful thoughts. He had gone to school almost fifty years before and he had rarely read a book, but he had lived on the top of his tower for so many years that he had absorbed the wisdom of that wide world which surrounded him on all sides.

  并且,我清楚这份回报是什么。我可以极目纵览大地和天空,我可以从我好心的朋友——塔楼看守人那里听到许许 多多的故事。在塔楼的一个隐蔽的角落里搭着一间小房子,看守人就住在里面。他负责照顾城市的时钟,也是呵护其它大小钟的细心的父亲。他还密切地注视着城 市,一有火灾的迹象就敲钟发出警讯。

 

History he knew well, for it was a living thing with him. “There,” he would say, pointing to a bend of the river, “there, my boy, do you see those trees? That is where the Prince of Orange cut the dikes to drown the land and save Leyden.” Or he would tell me the tale of the old Meuse, until the broad river ceased to be a convenient harbour and became a wonderful highroad, carrying the ships of De Ruyter and Tromp upon that famous last voyage, when they gave their lives that the sea might be free to all.

  他熟悉历史故事,它们对他来说都是活生生的事情。“看那儿”他会指着一处河弯对我讲道,“就是在那儿,我的 孩子,你看见那些树了么?那是奥兰治亲王挖开河堤,淹没大片田地的地方。为拯救莱顿城,他必须这么做。”他还给我讲老梅兹河源远流长的故事,讲解这条宽阔 的河流如何由便利的良港变成壮观的大马路的。还有著名的德·鲁伊特与特隆普的船队的最后出航。他俩为探索未知的海域,让人们能自由航行于茫茫大洋之上,而 一会不返了。

 

Then there were the little villages, clustering around the protecting church which once, many years ago, had been the home of their Patron Saints. In the distance we could see the leaning tower of Delft. Within sight of its high arches, William the Silent had been murdered and there Grotius had learned to construe his first Latin sentences. And still further away, the long low body of the church of Gouda, the early home of the man whose wit had proved mightier than the armies of many an emperor, the charity-boy whom the world came to know as Erasmus.

 

  再看过去是一些小村庄,围绕在护佑它们的那座教堂四周。很多年前,这里曾是守护圣徒们居住的家。远处还能望 见德尔夫的斜塔。它高耸的拱顶曾目睹了沉默者威廉遭暗杀的过程。格罗斯特就是在这里开始了他最初的拉丁文语法分析的。再远些那长而低的建筑就是高达教堂, 也是一位智慧的威力超过国王军队的伟人早年曾居住在这是。他就是举世闻名的埃拉斯穆斯高达教堂收养的孤儿.

 

Finally the silver line of the endless sea and as a contrast, immediately below us, the patchwork of roofs and chimneys and houses and gardens and hospitals and schools and railways, which we called our home. But the tower showed us the old home in a new light. The confused commotion of the streets and the market-place, of the factories and the workshop, became the well-ordered expression of human energy and purpose. Best of all, the wide view of the glorious past, which surrounded us on all sides, gave us new courage to face the problems of the future when we had gone back to our daily tasks.

  最后,我们的目光落在了浩瀚海洋的银色边际级上。它与近在脚下的大片屋顶、烟囱、花园、学校、铁路等建筑形 成了鲜明的对照。我们把这片拼凑的大杂偿称为自己的“家”但塔楼却赋予了这旧家新的启示。从塔顶上俯瞰下去;那些混乱无章的街道和市场,工厂与作坊,历历 变成了人类能力和目标的井然有序的展示。更有益的是,纵览围绕在我们四周的人类的辉煌过去,能使我们带着新的勇气,回到日常生活中,直面未来的种种难题。

 

History is the mighty Tower of Experience, which Time has built amidst the endless fields of bygone ages. It is no easy task to reach the top of this ancient structure and get the benefit of the full view. There is no elevator, but young feet are strong and it can be done.

 

Here I give you the key that will open the door.

 

When you return, you too will understand the reason for my enthusiasm.

 

HENDRIK WILLEM VAN LOON.

  历史是一座雄伟壮丽的经验之塔,它是时间在无尽的逝去岁月中苦心搭建起来的。要登上这座古老建筑的顶端去一览众山并非易事。这里没有电梯,可年轻人有强健有力的双脚,能够完成这一艰苦的攀登。

  在这里,我送给你们一把打开世界之门的钥匙。当你们返回时,你们就会理解我为何如此热情了。

                               亨德里克·威廉·房龙
CONTENTS

* FOREWORD
* THE STORY OF MANKIND
* THE SETTING OF THE STAGE
* OUR EARLIEST ANCESTORS
* PREHISTORIC MAN
* HIEROGLYPHICS
* THE NILE VALLEY
* THE STORY OF EGYPT
* MESOPOTAMIA
* THE SUMERIANS
* MOSES
* THE PHOENICIANS
* THE INDO-EUROPEANS
* THE AEGEAN SEA
* THE GREEKS
* THE GREEK CITIES
* GREEK SELF-GOVERNMENT
* GREEK LIFE
* THE GREEK THEATRE
* THE PERSIAN WARS
* ATHENS vs. SPARTA
* ALEXANDER THE GREAT
* A SUMMARY
* ROME AND CARTHAGE
* THE RISE OF ROME
* THE ROMAN EMPIRE
* JOSHUA OF NAZARETH
* THE FALL OF ROME
* RISE OF THE CHURCH
* MOHAMMED
* CHARLEMAGNE
* THE NORSEMEN
* FEUDALISM
* CHIVALRY
* POPE vs. EMPEROR
* THE CRUSADES
* THE MEDIAEVAL CITY
* MEDIAEVAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
* THE MEDIAEVAL WORLD
* MEDIAEVAL TRADE
* THE RENAISSANCE
* THE AGE OF EXPRESSION
* THE GREAT DISCOVERIES
* BUDDHA AND CONFUCIUS
* THE REFORMATION
* RELIGIOUS WARFARE
* THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION
* THE BALANCE OF POWER
* THE RISE OF RUSSIA
* RUSSIA vs. SWEDEN
* THE RISE OF PRUSSIA
* THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM
* THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
* THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
* NAPOLEON
* THE HOLY ALLIANCE
* THE GREAT REACTION
* NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE
* THE AGE OF THE ENGINE
* THE SOCIAL REVOLUTION
* EMANCIPATION
* THE AGE OF SCIENCE
* ART
* COLONIAL EXPANSION AND WAR
* A NEW WORLD
* AS IT EVER SHALL BE

 

1.  THE SETTING OF THE STAGE
2.  OUR EARLIEST ANCESTORS
3.  PREHISTORIC MAX BEGINS TO MAKE THINGS FOR HIMSELF
4.  THE EGYPTIANS INVENT THE ART OF WRITING AND THE RECORD OF HISTORY BEGINS
5.  THE BEGINNING OF CIVILISATION IN THE VALLEY OF THE NILE
6.  THE RISE AND FALL OF EGYPT
7.  MESOPOTAMIA, THE SECOND CENTRE OF EASTERN CIVILISATION
8.  THE SUMERIAN NAIL WRITERS, WHOSE CLAY TABLETS TELL US THE STORY OF ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA, THE GREAT SEMITIC MELTING-POT
9.  THE STORY OF MOSES, THE LEADER OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE
10. THE PHOENICIANS, WHO GAVE US OUR ALPHABET
11. THE INDO-EUROPEAN PERSIANS CONQUER THE SEMITIC AND THE EGYPTIAN WORLD
12. THE PEOPLE OF THE AEGEAN SEA CARRIED THE CIVILISATION OF OLD ASIA INTO THE WILDERNESS OF EUROPE
13. MEANWHILE THE INDO-EUROPEAN TRIBE OF THE HELLENES WAS TAKING POSSESSION OF GREECE
14. THE GREEK CITIES THAT WERE REALLY STATES
15. THE GREEKS WERE THE FIRST PEOPLE TO TRY THE DIFFICULT EXPERIMENT OF SELF-GOVERNMENT
16. HOW THE GREEKS LIVED
17. THE ORIGINS OF THE THEATRE, THE FIRST FORM OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT
18. HOW THE GREEKS DEFENDED EUROPE AGAINST AN ASIATIC INVASION AND DROVE THE PERSIANS BACK ACROSS THE AEGEAN SEA
19. HOW ATHENS AND SPARTA FOUGHT A LONG AND DISASTROUS WAR FOR THE LEADERSHIP OF GREECE
20. ALEXANDER THE MACEDONIAN ESTABLISHES A GREEK WORLD EMPIRE, AND WHAT BECAME OF THIS HIGH AMBITION
21. A SHORT SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS 1 TO 20

22. THE SEMITIC COLONY OF CARTHAGE ON THE NORTHERN COAST OF AFRICA AND THE INDO-EUROPEAN CITY OF ROME ON THE WEST
 COAST OF ITALY FOUGHT EACH OTHER FOR THE POSSESSION OF THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND CARTHAGE WAS DESTROYED
23. HOW ROME HAPPENED
24. HOW THE REPUBLIC OF ROME, AFTER CENTURIES OF UNREST AND REVOLUTION, BECAME AN EMPIRE
25. THE STORY OF JOSHUA OF NAZARETH, WHOM THE GREEKS CALLED JESUS
26. THE TWILIGHT OF ROME
27. HOW ROME BECAME THE CENTRE OF THE CHRISTIAN WORLD

28. AHMED, THE CAMEL DRIVER, WHO BECAME THE PROPHET OF THE ARABIAN DESERT, AND WHOSE FOLLOWERS ALMOST CONQUERED THE ENTIRE KNOWN WORLD FOR THE GREATER GLORY OF ALLAH, THE “ONLY TRUE GOD”

29. HOW CHARLEMAGNE, THE KING OF THE FRANKS, CAME TO BEAR THE TITLE OF EMPEROR AND TRIED TO REVIVE THE OLD IDEAL OF WORLD-EMPIRE

30. WHY THE PEOPLE OF THE TENTH CENTURY PRAYED THE LORD TO PROTECT THEM FROM THE FURY OF THE NORSEMEN

31. HOW CENTRAL EUROPE, ATTACKED FROM THREE SIDES, BECAME AN ARMED CAMP AND WHY EUROPE WOULD HAVE PERISHED WITHOUT THOSE PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS AND ADMINISTRATORS WHO WERE PART OF THE FEUDAL SYSTEM

32. CHIVALRY

33. THE STRANGE DOUBLE LOYALTY OF THE PEOPLE OF THE MIDDLE AGES, AND HOW IT LED TO ENDLESS QUARRELS BETWEEN THE POPES AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS

34. BUT ALL THESE DIFFERENT QUARRELS WERE FORGOTTEN WHEN THE TURKS TOOK THE HOLY LAND, DESECRATED THE HOLY PLACES AND INTERFERED SERIOUSLY WITH THE TRADE FROM EAST TO WEST. EUROPE WENT CRUSADING

35. WHY THE PEOPLE OF THE MIDDLE AGES SAID THAT CITY AIR IS FREE AIR

36. HOW THE PEOPLE OF THE CITIES ASSERTED THEIR RIGHT TO BE HEARD IN THE ROYAL COUNCILS OF THEIR COUNTRY

37. WHAT THE PEOPLE OF THE MIDDLE AGES THOUGHT OF THE WORLD IN WHICH THEY HAPPENED TO LIVE

38. HOW THE CRUSADES ONCE MORE MADE THE MEDITERRANEAN A BUSY CENTRE OF TBADE AND HOW THE CITIES OF THE ITALIAN PENINSULA BECAME THE GREAT DISTRIBUTING CENTRE FOR THE COMMERCE WITH ASIA AND AFRICA

39. PEOPLE ONCE MORE DARED TO BE HAPPY JUST BECAUSE THEY WERE ALIVE. THEY TRIED TO SAVE THE REMAINS OF THE OLDER AND MORE AGREEABLE CIVILISATION OF ROME AND GREECE AND THEY WERE 80 PROUD OF THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS THAT THEY SPOKE OF A RENAISSANCE OR RE-BIRTH OF CIVILISATION

40. THE PEOPLE BEGAN TO FEEL THE NEED OF GIVING EXPRESSION TO THEIR NEWLY DISCOVERED JOY OF LIVING. THEY EXPRESSED THEIR HAPPINES9 IN POETRY AND IN SCULPTURE AND IN ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING, AND IN THE BOOKS THEY PRINTED

41. BUT NOW THAT PEOPLE HAD BROKEN THROUGH THE BONDS OF THEIR NARROW ~IEDIIEVAL LIMITATIONS, THEY HAD TO HAVE MORE ROOM FOR THEIR WANDERINGS. THE EUROPEAN WORLD HAD GROWN TOO SMALL FOR THEIR AMBITIONS. IT WAS THE TIME OF THE GREAT VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY

42. CONCERNING BUDDHA AND CONFUCIUS

43. THE PROGRESS OF THE HUMAN RACE IS BEST COMPARED TO A GIGANTIC PENDULUM WHICH FOREVER SWINGS FORWARD AND BACKWARD. THE RELIGIOUS INDIFFERENCE AND THE ARTISTIC AND LITERARY ENTHUSIASM OF THE RENAISSANCE WERE FOLLOWED BY THE ARTISTIC AND LITERARY INDIFFERENCE AND THE RELIGIOITS ENTHUSIASM OF THE REFORMATION

44. THE AGE OF THE GREAT RELIGIOUS CONTROVERSIES

45. HOW THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS AND THE LESS DIVINE BUT MORE REASONABLE RIGHT OF PARLIAMENT ENDED DISASTROUSLY FOR KING CHARLES II

46. IN FRANCE, ON THE OTHER HAND, THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS CONTINUED WITH GREATER POMP AND SPLENDOR THAN EVER BEFORE AND THE AMBITION OF THE RULER WAS ONLY TEMPERED BY THE NEWLY INVENTED LAW OF THE BALANCE OF POWER

47. THE STORY OF THE MYSTERIOUS MUSCOVITE EMPIRE WHICH SUDDENLY BURST UPON THE GRAND POLITICAL STAGE OF EUROPE

48. RUSSIA AND SWEDEN FOUGHT MANY WARS TO DECIDE WHO SHALL BE THE LEADING POWER OF NORTHEASTERN EUROPE

49. THE EXTRAORDINARY RISE OF A LITTLE STATE IN A DREARY PART OF NORTHERN GERMANY, CALLED PRUSSIA

50. HOW THE NEWLY FOUNDED NATIONAL OR DYNASTIC STATES OF EUROPE TRIED TO MAKE THEMSELVES RICH AND WHAT WAS MEANT BY THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM

51. AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE HEARD STRANGE REPORTS OF SOMETHING WHICH HAD HAPPENED IN THE WILDERNESS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT. THE DESCENDANTS OF THE MEN WHO HAD PUNISHED KING CHARLES FOR HIS INSISTENCE UPON HIS DIVINE RIGHTS ADDED A NEW CHAPTER TO THE OLD STORY OF THE STRUGGLE FOR SELF- GOVERNMENT

52. THE GREAT FRENCH REVOLUTION PROCLAIMS THE PRINCIPLES OF LIBERTY, FRATERNITY AND EQUALITY UNTO All THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH

53. NAPOLEON

54. AS SOON AS NAPOLEON HAD BEEN SENT TO ST. HELENA, THE RULERS WHO SO OFTEN HAD BEEN DEFEATED BY THE HATED CORSICAN MET AT VIENNA AND TRIED TO UNDO THE MANY CHANCES WHICH HAD BEEN BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

55. THEY TRIED TO ASSURE THE WORLD AN ERA OF UNDISTURBED PEACE BY SUPPRESSING ALL NEW IDEAS. THEY MADE THE POLICE-SPY THE HIGHEST FUNCTIONARY IN THE STATE AND SOON THE PRISONS OF AIL COUNTRIES WERE FILLED WITH THOSE WHO CLAIMED THAT PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO GOVERN THEMSELVES AS THEY SEE FIT

56. THE LOVE OF NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE, HOWEVER, WAS TOO STRONG TO BE DESTROYED IN THIS WAY. THE SOUTH AMERICANS WERE THE FIRST TO REBEL AGAINST THE REACTIONARY MEASURES OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA. GREECE AND BELGIUM AND SPAIN AND A LARGE NUMBER OF OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT FOLLOWED SUIT AND THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WAS FILLED WITH THE RUMOR OF MANY WARS OF INDEPENDENCE

57. BUT WHITE THE PEOPLE OF EUROPE WERE FIGHTING FOR THEIR NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE, THE WORLD IN WHICH THEY LIVED HAD BEEN ENTIRELY CHANGED BY A SERIES OF INVENTIONS, WHICH HAD MADE THE CLUMSY OLD STEAM-ENGINE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY THE MOST FAITHFUL AND EFFICIENT STAVE OF MAN

58. THE NEW ENGINES WERE VERY EXPENSIVE AND ONLY PEOPLE OF WEALTH COULD AFFORD THEM. THE OLD CARPENTER OR SHOEMAKER WHO HAD BEEN HIS OWN MASTER IN HIS LITTLE WORKSHOP WAS OBLIGED TO HIRE HIMSELF OUT TO THE OWNERS OF THE BIG MECHANICAL TOOLS, AND WHITE HE MADE MORE MONEY THAN BEFORE, HE LOST HIS FORMER INDEPENDENCE AND HE DID NOT LIKE THAT

59. THE GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF MACHINERY DID NOT BRING ABOUT THE ERA OF HAPPINESS AND PROSPERITY WHICH HAD BEEN PREDICTED BY THE GENERATION WHICH SAW THE STAGE COACH REPLACED BY THE RAILROAD. SEVERAL REMEDIES WERE SUGGESTED, BUT NONE OF THESE QUITE SOLVED THE PROBLEM

60. BUT THE WORLD HAD UNDERGONE ANOTHER CHANGE WHICH WAS OF GREATER IMPORTANCE THAN EITHER THE POLITICAL OR THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS. AFTER GENERATIONS OF OPPRESSION AND PERSECUTION, THE SCIENTIST HAD AT LAST GAINED LIBERTY OF ACTION AND HE WAS NOW TRYING TO DISCOVER THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS WHICH GOVERN THE UNIVERSE

61. A CHAPTER OF ART

62. THE LAST FIFTY YEARS, INCLUDING SEVERAL EXPLANATIONSAND A FEW APOLOGIES

63. THE GREAT WAR, WHICH WAS REALLY THE STRUGGLE FOR A NEW AND BETTER WORLD

64.ANIMATED CHRONOLOGY

65.CONCERNING THE PICTURES

66.AN HISTORICAL READING LIST FOR CHILDREN

67.INDEX

0

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