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## Higgs Boson: One page explanation

(2012-01-04 11:01:41)

### 杂谈

#### 1, How Particles Acquire Mass

By Mary and Ian Butterworth, Imperial College London, and Doris and Vigdor Teplitz, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, USA.

The Higgs boson is a hypothesised particle which, if it exists, would give the mechanism by which particles acquire mass.

Matter is made of molecules; molecules of atoms; atoms of a cloud of electrons about one-hundred-millionth of a centimetre and a nucleus about one-hundred-thousandth the size of the electron cloud. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons. Each proton (or neutron) has about two thousand times the mass of an electron. We know a good deal about why the nucleus is so small. We do not know, however, how the particles get their masses. Why are the masses what they are? Why are the ratios of masses what they are? We can't be said to understand the constituents of matter if we don't have a satisfactory answer to this question.

Peter Higgs has a model in which particle masses arise in a beautiful, but complex, progression. He starts with a particle that has only mass, and no other characteristics, such as charge, that distinguish particles from empty space. We can call his particle H. H interacts with other particles; for example if H is near an electron, there is a force between the two. H is of a class of particles called "bosons". We first attempt a more precise, but non-mathematical statement of the point of the model; then we give explanatory pictures.

In the mathematics of quantum mechanics describing creation and annihilation of elementary particles, as observed at accelerators, particles at particular points arise from "fields" spread over space and time. Higgs found that parameters in the equations for the field associated with the particle H can be chosen in such a way that the lowest energy state of that field (empty space) is one with the field not zero. It is surprising that the field is not zero in empty space, but the result, not an obvious one, is: all particles that can interact with H gain mass from the interaction.

Thus mathematics links the existence of H to a contribution to the mass of all particles with which H interacts. A picture that corresponds to the mathematics is of the lowest energy state, "empty" space, having a crown of H particles with no energy of their own. Other particles get their masses by interacting with this collection of zero-energy H particles. The mass (or inertia or resistance to change in motion) of a particle comes from its being "grabbed at" by Higgs particles when we try and move it.

If particles no get their masses from interacting with the empty space Higgs field, then the Higgs particle must exist; but we can't be certain without finding the Higgs. We have other hints about the Higgs; for example, if it exists, it plays a role in "unifying" different forces. However, we believe that nature could contrive to get the results that would flow from the Higgs in other ways. In fact, proving the Higgs particle does not exist would be scientifically every bit as valuable as proving it does.

These questions, the mechanisms by which particles get their masses, and the relationship amongs different forces of nature, are major ones and so basic to having an understanding of the constituents of matter and the forces among them, that it is hard to see how we can make significant progress in our understanding of the stuff of which the earth is made without answering them.

#### 2, Of Particles, Pencils and Unification

By Tom Kibble Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, UK.

Theoretical physicists always aim for unification. Newton recognised that the fall of an apple, the tides and the orbits of the planets as aspects of a single phenomenon, gravity. Maxwell unified electricity, magnetism and light. Each synthesis extends our understanding and leads eventually to new applications.

In the 1960s the time was ripe for a further step. We had a marvellously accurate theory of electromagnetic forces, quantum electrodynamics, or QED, a quantum version of Maxwell's theory. In it, electromagnetic forces are seen as due to the exchange between electrically charged particles of photons, packets (or quanta) of electromagnetic waves. (The distinction between particle and wave has disappeared in quantum theory.) The "weak" forces, involved in radioactivity and in the Sun's power generation, are in many ways very similar, save for being much weaker and restricted in range. A beautiful unified theory of weak and electromagnetic forces was proposed in 1967 by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam (independently). The weak forces are due to the exchange of W and Z particles. Their short range, and apparent weakness at ordinary ranges, is because, unlike the photon, the W and Z are, by our standards, very massive particles, 100 times heavier than a hydrogen atom.

The "electro-weak" theory has been convincingly verified, in particular by the discovery of the W and Z at CERN in 1983, and by many tests of the properties. However, the origin of their masses remains mysterious. Our best guess is the "Higgs mechanism" - but that aspect of the theory remains untested.

The fundamental theory exhibits a beautiful symmetry between W, Z and photon. But this is a spontaneously broken symmetry. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a ubiquitous phenomenon. For example, a pencil balanced on its tip shows complete rotational symmetry - it looks the same from every side. - but when it falls it must do in some particular direction, breaking the symmetry. We think the masses of the W and Z (and of the electron) arise through a similar mechanism. It is thought there are "pencils" throughout space, even in vacuum. (of course, these are not real physical pencils - they represent the "Higgs field" - nor is their direction a direction in real physical space, but the analogy is fairly close.) The pencils are all coupled together, so that they all tend to fall in the same direction. Their presence in the vacuum influences waves travelling through it. The waves have of course a direction in space, but they also have a "direction" in this conceptual space. In some "directions", waves have to move the pencils too, so they are more sluggish; those waves are the W and Z quanta.

The theory can be tested, because it suggests that there should be another kind of wave, a wave in the pencils alone, where they are bouncing up and down. That wave is the Higgs particle. Finding it would confirm that we really do understand the origin of mass, and allow us to put the capstone on the electro-weak theory, filling in the few remaining gaps.

Once the theory is complete, we can hope to build further on it: a longer-term goal is a unified theory involving also the "strong" interactions that bind protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei - and if we are really optimistic, even gravity, seemingly the hardest force to bring into the unified scheme.

There are strong hints that a "grand unified" synthesis is possible, but the details are still very vague. Finding the Higgs would give us very significant clues to the nature of that greater synthesis.

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