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轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)

(2007-06-21 19:23:52)
轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)本教程car proportion来自国外网站,不知道大家有没有看过
http://www.style4cars.com
最近努力学英语,心血来潮翻译了一篇教程,自己感觉收获很大
原文和译文一并贴上,水平不是很专业,请大家批评指正,共同进步

When we start drawing cars, the first time we do it is because we like them. Maybe we have been looking at a car that we like for hours, and then we think “I want to do something like this”. Even when we do not want, the first draw of our own car has something of that car. Most of the times, it has the gestures or graphics over which our attention falls. But there are a lot of hidden things that escape from our sight.
当我们开始画车的时候,第一次画车是因为喜欢车。可能我们会对着自己喜欢的车子看上几个小时,然后想“我也要做一辆这样的车”。即使不想,我们画的第一辆车身上也会有它的影子。大多数时候,我们会把注意力放在车的姿势或样子(gestures or graphics)上,但是忽略了很多隐藏着的东西。
If we ask people the reason because they like that or that other car, they will not give a convincing answer. They like it, but many times they do not know why. And a big number of cars are still sold around the world because of their look.
如果我们问别人喜欢一辆车的原因,他们可能给不出令人信服的答案。他们只是喜欢,却经常说不出喜欢的原因。而世界上很多车依然是在卖外观。
One of the most important things is the harmonious proportions of the architecture. As Leonardo da Vinci did with the human body, and his Vitruvian Man, a great number of studious men have done the same thing with the right proportions of the vehicles.
在建筑上最重要的一点就是和谐的比例。正如达芬奇对人体比例的研究一样,很多好学的人也在为汽车寻找恰当的比例。
Talking about cars, the harmony of lines and volumes must pass unnoticed. Only when one of the rules of the proportions is broken we can view there is something wrong. Obviously the idea of the perfect proportions changes with the years, as happens for instance with the human beauty, because it has a social and cultural face which evolves.
谈到车,线条和体量的和谐一定会被忽略,只有当比例法则被破坏时我们才会发现不对劲。显然,完美比例的概念随时代变化而变化,正如对美女的审美观也随社会和文化的变化而变化。

It is important too to clarify that in design (as in almost everything) there is nothing absolute. You can find on the streets some cars that do not totally match with the rules we are going to expose. But, of course, if you break a rule, you must know you are doing it. You can decide not to follow some of them, so you know you must work to equilibrate the result.
当然也有必要澄清,在设计中(几乎任何事物都如此)没有任何事情是绝对的。你可以在街上看到一些不完全遵守我们所要揭示的比例法则的车子,不过如果你违背一条法则,你当然要清楚你在违背它。你可以决定不去遵守某些法则,但是你必须下功夫去平衡你的效果。
Sometimes the technical features of the vehicle condition the result. Is not the same, for instance, to have the engine in the front that in the rear; to have transverse or longitudinal engine… Designers must, in many cases, to work for disguising ugly but technically needed elements or their disposition.
有时候车的技术特征限定了设计结果,例如引擎的前置和后置,横列和纵列都是不同的,设计师经常需要通过设计去为一些技术上需要的元件和布置进行遮丑。
Since you can find so many types of different bodies, we could make a different analysis for each one of them, and perhaps we will do it in a near future. But, for now, we will take the most representative of them: the four doors saloon.
既然我们能找到这么多车身样式,就可以它们进行不同的分析,或许这个工作将在不远的将来进行。不过现在让我们选择最有代表性的车:四门轿车。
We can start from the analysis of the today’s considered harmonious proportions to know and understand its future changes. Let’s take a look over one of the best-proportioned cars of the market:
我们可以从分析当今被认为和谐的比例入手,理解它未来的变化。让我们看下面这辆车,它是市场上比例最和谐的汽车之一。

The lines of the Mercedes E-Class are the lines of a classic three volumes saloon. In other words, it is designed avoiding the radical aesthetic innovations and the showiness. So, if we do not see anything strange in its lines or volumes, that can be useful to make a study of its proportions.
从线条来看,奔驰E系属于经典三厢车。或者说,它的设计避免了过于过于激进的美学创新和炫耀(the radical aesthetic innovations and the showiness)。如果我们看不出它的线条和体量有什么奇怪的话,就拿它拿来做比例的研究吧。
轿车比例[译自国外教程](转)
1st rule: When we start a new project or car drawing, the first reference point we take are the wheels. Once the wheels are positioned, we can construct line by line the rest of the car. Often you will see drawings of professional designers which have really big wheels and they look great. But we must know that the distance between the wheels in the same side of a car is about three times the diameter of one of them. In our example is around three and a half times:
法则1:当我们开始画车的时候,起初的参考点就是轮子。一旦轮子被定位,我们就可以一条线一条线地构造出车的其他部分。你通常会看到专业设计师画的车都拥有很大的轮子,看起来很棒。但是你必须知道,在车的同侧,两个轮子之间的距离大约等于轮子直径的3倍。在我们的例子中,这个倍数大概是三个半。

Is true that big wheels give a better look to any car, but the wheelbase as well as the wheel size, are very important for the car dynamics and for the interior space. An evidence of that is the size of our car's wheels: even if we cab yse up to 21” or 22” rims, the street cars rarely cross the barrier of 19” (and only if it is a really big car or a super sport coupe!!). The resource used by designers to make the street vehicles look like show cars, is to accentuate the wheel arches.
大轮子让任何车子都更漂亮,这是真的,但是除了轮子大小,轴距对于汽车动力性能和内部空间也是很重要的。例如,我们即使能使用21’’或22’’的轮圈,一般也很少能越过19’’高的障碍(除非你的车子真的很大,或者是一辆超级越野车)。设计师把街上的汽车画得象展车一样,目的是强调出轮拱。
You can draw a car with bigger wheels than real ones, and so it will have the necessary drama to make it look faster and more powerful; however you must not place them too nearly, because it will look like a toy and later making that car in a 3D model you will be forced to use real size for the wheels. In that case you will loose the drama of the car that you just imagined.
The wheelbase must have an adequate length too. Think that the wheelbase length is one of the parameters which have more influence over the chassis rigidity. The longer wheelbase, the more weight needed to reinforce the structure. (And the more money in materials and the more power needed to move the car).
你可以画一辆比真车轮子大的车子,这样车子就会显得快速而有力。但是你不能把轮子放的太近,那会让车象一个玩具,以至于当你建模的时候不得不把轮子改小,从而失去你想要的戏剧效果。
轴距也应该有适当的长度,因为该参量可以影响底盘强度。轴距越长,就需要越多的重量去加固底盘。(也需要越多的钱购买材料,需要更多的动力去拉动汽车)。
2nd rule: The position and the orientation of the A pillar are important. If we draw an extend from the base of the A pillar it will end near the centre of the front wheel:
法则2:A柱的位置和走势很重要,如果我们把A柱从底部延长,延长线会经过前轮的圆心。
This rule can be differently applied for the front than for the rear wheel drive cars for technical reasons.
The FWD cars, usually, have transversally placed engines (unless they are ready to mount a 4WD system, as for instance Audi). The front wheels must be placed behind the engine, because of the transmission placed itself behind the engine. You can see this detail in new cars as the Peugeot 407, which has the wheels so close to the front door that the opening line is pulled back. Their designers have done a very good work disguising that detail, but, if you take a look, you will see that is a big part of the car hanging beyond the front wheel.
The RWD cars usually have their engines placed longitudinally and the wheels are placed near the corners.
因为技术原因,这条法则对于前驱和后驱的车子有不同的应用。
前驱的车通常前置横列引擎(除非它们采用四驱系统,比如奥迪)。前轮必须被安置在引擎后面,因为变速箱安装在引擎后面。你可以在像标致407这种新车上发现这个细节,它前轮靠后,跟前门是如此接近,以至A柱的延长线应该往后拉(才能经过前轮中心)。标致的设计师很好的伪装了这样一个细节,那就是很大一部分车体悬挂在前轮之前。
后驱的车通常纵列引擎,轮子被安放在角落处(即前悬短,参考宝马车-----译者)
3rd rule: If we draw a vertical line from the lower point of the C pillar, this line has to go straight to the center of the rear wheel. As we have seen before, we may see some differences between FWD y RWD cars:
法则3:如果我们从C柱较低处引垂线,该垂线必须经过后轮中心。不过正如我们以前看到的,前驱和后驱的车可能会有不同。

The car in the image is RWD. As explained in the previous rule, that kind of cars has the front wheels closer to the corners than the FWD. In other words, the entire cockpit is pulled back to make place for the longitudinally placed engine. So, the C pillar, which marks the rear end of the cockpit, begins over the axis of the rear wheels.
In the FWD the cockpit is moved a little bit forward, in relation with the RWD car, so the C pillar usually is centred in its base over the rear wheel axle.
图中的车是后驱的。正如上一条法则讲的那样,这种车的前悬比前驱车更短。换句话说,驾驶仓必须后移,给纵列引擎腾出足够空间。所以说C柱也相应后移,C柱最低点比后轮中心还要靠后。
4th rule: If we draw a line connecting the centres of both wheels of a side, the bottom opening line of the doors should match with it:
如果我们连接同侧前后轮中心画一条线,这条线将和车门下边缘线(the bottom opening line)重合。
No much more to say about it.
对此无需多做解释
5th rule: Usually there is a line defining the height position of the front lamps and bumper. That line starts from the top of the front wheel:
通常有一条线定义了前灯和保险杠的高度,这条线跟前轮上缘高度一致。
That line can be now found in a lower position than a few years ago. You can see some concept cars which have the front lights even lower than street cars (for instance, the Lexus LF-C Concept). That is not only because the show car wheels are bigger, but because the designers explore the more aggressive look of the car with the front lamps in different positions. You can also find extreme cases like the Rolls-Royce Phantom VII, that had their lights so high that it was necessary to add a couple more (the round ones) in a lower position leaving the originals in order to keep its aesthetic equilibrium.
现在有些车这条线比几年前要低。你可以看到一些概念车的前灯比量产车的还要低(例如雷克萨斯LF-C概念车)。那不仅是因为参展车轮子大,更是因为设计师需要通过前灯不同位置的摆放探索更具攻击性的前脸。更极端的例子是劳施莱斯幻影VII,它的前灯是如此之高,以至于我们需要在它原先车灯的下面再添一对灯以保持审美平衡。

6th rule: One of the most important aspect of the car is given by the proportions between the glass and the body. That most used is up to 1/3 of the total car’s height for the glass:
车窗和车体之间的比例也是汽车比例中最重要的方面之一。车窗通常占据整车高度的1/3。
Keeping in mind this proportion, let’s take a look at what happen if we alter the glass surface. Less than 1/3 means a sportier and more aggresive looking. But we have to know that the access in the car is harder, and once inside, the passengers can experiment claustrophobic sensation, especially those from the rear seat. Think, for instance, at the differences between our example car, the Mercedes E Class, and the CLS: the latter one is so more sporty because of these proportions and the potential buyers for one or the other are so different that there are two shapes for the same car.
If we change the proportions by increasing the glass surface, we will obtain more cab-looking cars. The more surface you give to glasses, the more increases the practical aspect of the car. If you want to do so, think always about the way on which the window opens, because if the glass is bigger than the space available in the door you must know that they can not be fully opened.
记住这个比例,让我们看看改变玻璃面积之后会发生什么。更小的玻璃面积意味着更有运动性和攻击性的外表,但是上车比较困难,而且车内乘客(特别是后排乘客)会有封闭感。试想,比起我们的奔驰E系来,CLS显得如此运动,正因为它拥有这种比例。这两款车的潜在客户是不同的,所以同一个品牌需要这两种车型。如果我们增大玻璃面积,就会获得一辆更象出租车的轿车。玻璃面积越大,轿车的实用性越强。如果你要这么做,总是要考虑车窗打开的方式,因为如果玻璃比车门面积大的话,就不能完全的收回到车门里。
7th rule: At last, the total height of the body should be about two and 1/4 - two and 1/2 times the height of a single wheel:
法则7:最后,车身总高应该是在车轮直径的2又1/4倍和2又1/2倍之间

It is important to remark that all those rules are so universally accepted that they have become themselves a standard in the automotive industry; new cars must agree with them to fit the platform on which they are going to be assembled.
需要指出的是,所有这些法则都被如此普遍的接受,以至于成为汽车工业的标准,新车的设计必须匹配这个标准平台才能装配出来。



 

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