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[转载]国际商会(ICC)合同范本分析与应用(简缩版)

(2011-11-27 10:53:25)
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先收藏,慢慢学,留下看。谢谢郎老师!

国际商会(ICC)合同范本分析与应用(缩简版)

From ICC to FIDIC 适用中级水平读者)

—郎可夫

引言

        国际经济风云变幻,华夏民族越战越勇。然而,我们付出的代价也很惨痛。本人在调查中发现,许多国企或民企均采用套用的合同模板。有的将国外合同加以修改,有的从国内的出版物中截取。这种做法,往往会带不可预测的经济损失。为了解决这个问题,本人推荐采用国际商会(ICC)的系列合同范本或菲迪克(Fidic)合同范本,旨在纠正“盲目套用”的不良习惯,从本质上提高我国企业的国际竞争力。值得指出的是,国际经济百变叵测,任何合同范本都不可能面面俱到,万无一失。ICC系列合同也不例外。只有与时俱进,真正做到知己知彼,方能百战不殆。

      

第一部分:国际商会(ICC)简介

Who is ICC

ICC is the world business organization, a representative body that speaks with authority on behalf of enterprises from all sectors in every part of the world.

What is ICC’s mission?

The fundamental mission of ICC is to promote trade and investment across frontiers and help business corporations meet the challenges and opportunities of globalization. Its conviction that trade is a powerful force for peace and prosperity dates from the organization’s origins early in the last century. The small group of farsighted business leaders who founded ICC called themselves “the merchants of peace”.

When was it founded?

ICC was founded in 1919. Today it groups thousands of member companies and associations from over 130 countries. National committees work with their members to address the concerns of business in their countries and convey to their governments the business views formulated by ICC.

What is its relationship with the United Nations?

Within a year of the creation of the United Nations, ICC was granted consultative status at the highest level with the UN and its specialized agencies.

What is ICC’s authority?

Because its member companies and associations are themselves engaged in international business, ICC has unrivalled authority in making rules that govern the conduct of business across borders. Although these rules are voluntary, they are observed in countless thousands of transactions every day and have become part of the fabric of international trade.

 

第二部分: ICC合同范本的特点

ICC 国际销售示范合同1 The ICC Model  International Sale Contract(以下简称:ICC- M-11997

   该合同范本主要是针对旨在转售的制成品的销售合同而言的,在此情况下,买方不是消费者,该合同是一项独立的交易而不是长期供货协议的一部分。

Annexes

1. Specimen Form of Model Contract

2. Incoterms 2000 - 13 Preambles plus Extracts from the Introduction (Incoterms 1990 in the French version and French eBook version)

3. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods(CSIG)

附:1. 示范合同样本

2.《国际贸易术语通则2000

3.《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》(UNCITRAL-CISG

 

(提示:要运用好国际合同,应注意学习和领悟国际商法。在货物贸易方面,首先应学习和掌握《国际贸易术语通则2000》,这是国际贸易的起点和基本功。)

 

 2.  ICC 成套设备示范合同2 The ICC Model Contract for the Turnkey Supply of an Industrial Plant  (以下简称:ICC-M-2 ) 2003

该合同范本主要适用于成套设备的设计、制造、采购与销售。整体上具有货物买卖合同的性质和特点。

APPENDICES

Appendix I United Nations Convention on the International Sales of Goods ....... 75

Appendix II Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts ............... 101

附:1《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》(UNCITRAL-CISG

2《国际商事合同通则》(UNIDRIT-PICC

 

(提示:在贸易实务中,套用的合同“范本”往往隐藏对卖方或卖方不利的条款。在货物贸易方面,《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》和《国际商事合同通则》是国际商事裁决或仲裁的法律依据。)

 

3.   ICC EPC示范合同3The ICC Model Turnkey Contract for Major Project 以下简称:ICC-M-3) 2007

该合同范本主要适用于成套设备的设计、制造、采购、销售与施工。整体上具有总承包EPC合同的性质和特点。

(提示:至此 ICC 已提供了3个合同范本:ICC-M-1 主要,适用于货物贸易;ICC-M-2,主要适用于成套设备贸易;ICC-M-3 主要适用于 EPC 总承包。从技术层面上看,这三个合同范本的内容具有由简到繁的特点。理解这一点,可以从货物的流动过程为线索。ICC-M-1 主要是贸易,交货后买卖双方的责任和义务即基本结束。ICC-M-2 涉及货物的设计、制造、交货、安装、调试、试车等过程。ICC-M-3ICC-M-2 的基础上又增加了土建的内容。至此,买卖双方的责任和义务已涉及到买方所在国的法律问题,问题由此变得更加复杂。由此凸现出系统学习和理解国际示范合同的意义。)

 

第三部分:FIDIC 简介

What is fidic?

FIDIC, the International Federation of Consulting Engineers (the acronym stands for the French version of the name) [1]represents globally the consulting engineering industry. Companies and organizations belonging to FIDIC national Member Associations may announce themselves as FIDIC members, and use the FIDIC logo

What is Fidic’s mission?

“To improve the business climate and promote the interests of consulting engineering firms, globally and locally, consistent with the responsibility to provide quality services for the benefit of society and the environment”

When was it founded?

Founded in 1913, FIDIC membership today numbers 75 Member Associations representing some 1 million professionals.

What is its relationship with the United Nations?

As a UN Global Compact [2]partner, represents worldwide the business interests of suppliers of technology-based intellectual services for the built and natural environment. Through Member Associations in over 60 countries, it is committed to promoting the values articulated by the UN Secretary General as the core of a Global Compact. Such values enable the Federation to extend its mission, formulated in the report Engineering Our Future, "to accept and uphold our responsibilities to society".

What is FIDIC’s authority?

FIDIC's principal Conditions of Contract are widely recognized as leaders in the field. They are used worldwide for many projects involving infrastructure development, notably: construction projects designed by the engineer,  for electrical and mechanical plant, and for building and engineering works, designed by the contractor; for Engineer-Procure-Construct/Turnkey projects.

 
4.  Fidic 合同(银皮书)3FIDICConditions for EPC/ Turnkey Projects 1999 以下简称 Fidic EPC

该合同范本主要适用于成套设备的设计、制造、采购、销售与施工。整体上具有总承包EPC合同的性质,主要用于工程招标。(PXIVThe forms are recommended for general use where tenders are invited on an international basis.

 

(提示:FIDIC是国际咨询工程师联合会的法文名字缩写。音译:菲迪克。这是我国海外工程承包的主要合同范本。内容丰富,条例清晰。如欲深入学习,可参阅我国对外工程承包商会专家田威所著的FIDIC合同条件实用技巧》、《FIDIC合同条件应用实务》。

 

 第四部分国际货物销售合同与总承包合同的主要区别:          

Sales Contract v EPC Contract

From ICC to FIDIC

1.     合同当事人的区别  

  ICC- Model-1 当事人 无专项定义):“卖方”与“买方”

   ICC- Model-2 当事人 有专项定义) p21Party  means either the Supplier or the Purchaser, and together the Parties.[3]

    ICC-Model-3 当事人(有专项定义):“雇主”与“承包商”

p15 Employer  means the legal or natural person(s) named as employer in the Contract, its agents, assignees agreed by the Contractor and the legal successors in the title to this or these person(s). I

p14 Contractor means the legal or natural person(s) named as contractor in the Contract, its agents, assignees agreed by the Employer and the legal successors in the title to this or these person(s)

 

l       Fidic (EPC) 当事人(定义)“雇主”与“承包商

“Party” means the Employer or the Contractor, as the context requires.

“Employer” means the person named as employer in the Contract Agreement and the legal successors in title to this person.

“Contractor” means the person(s) named as contractor in the Contract Agreement and the legal successors in title to this person(s).

 

2.     合同当事人义务的区别

 ICC-Model-1 ——(通用条款 Art 12):“卖方与买方的合作”

 ICC-Model -2 —— A:卖方主要义务:设计、采购 ( E + P) 销售

                  B: 买方主要义务: 施工(C

For the Turnkey Supply of an Industrial Plant

4.2 Supplier’s obligations. The turnkey supply of the Plant comprises the following:

(a) the design and engineering of the Plant;

(b) the preparation of the Layout of the Plant, according to Article 8;

(c) the supply of the Equipment specified in Annex 2-A;………

 

4.3 Scope of Purchaser’s work. The Purchaser shall provide:

(a) all civil works, including but not limited to buildings, roads, foundations;

(b) the supply and setting up of general services such as main branches up to the

Battery Limits for electricity, water, etc;

ICC model 1p9

The contract covers a particular category of turnkey contracts, i.e. contracts for the supply of a plant or production line to be erected within facilities which already exist or which are constructed by the purchaser. The ICC Commission on Commercial Law and Practice (CLP) is currently preparing a model “comprehensive” turnkey contract, which is more suitable for large civil works or for contracts for the supply of a plant where the contractor undertakes to supply a complete factory.[4]

 

  ICC- model- 3    A雇主主要义务:付款+提供施工场地

 B:承包商主要义务:设计、采购、施工

   ( E + P + C)    

Article 13  THE EMPLOYER’S OBLIGATIONS

 

13.1 This Contract is a reciprocal contract with each Party owing obligations to the other Party.

13.2 The Employer’s responsibilities include the obligation to pay the Contract Price and to co-operate, in good faith, with the Contractor in order to enable it to perform its duties, as set out in this Contract, and not to hinder or delay the Contractor in the Contractor’s performance of the Works.

…………

PROVIDING THE SITE

13.3 The Employer shall be responsible, to the extent necessary for the purposes of the Works, for acquiring and providing legal and physical possession of the Site (or Sections of it) and access thereto, and providing possession and use of and access to all areas reasonably required for the proper execution of the Works by the Contractor ,including all requisite rights of way and access routes in accordance, if applicable, with the Appendices and other terms of the Contract and shall give all rights of access thereto on or before the Date or Dates set out in this Contract, or, if there are no such Dates, the reasonable Dates upon which the Contractor reasonably notifies the Employer that they are required.

 

Article 14 THE CONTRACTOR’S OBLIGATIONS

 

14.1  The Contractor shall, with due diligence, design, procure, supply, execute, commission, test and complete the Works, and shall remedy any Defects in the Works in accordance with the Contract. When completed, the Works shall be fit for the purposes for which the Works are intended as specifically defined in the Contract.

……….

   Fidic (EPC) —— A 雇主主要义务:付款+提供施工场地

B 承包商主要义务:设计、采购、施工

                              ( E + P + C)

2  The Employer

2.1 Right of Access to the Site

The Employer shall give the Contractor right of access to, and possession of, all parts of the Site within the time (or times) stated in the Particular Conditions.

2.4 Employer’s Financial Arrangements

The Employer shall submit, within 28 days after receiving any request from the Contractor, reasonable evidence that financial arrangements have been made and are being maintained which will enable the Employer to pay the Contract Price (as estimated at that time) in accordance with Clause 14 [Contract Price and Payment].

 

4 The Contractor

4.1 The Contractor’s General Obligations

The Contractor shall design, execute and complete the Works in accordance with the Contract, and shall remedy any defects in the Works. When completed, the Works shall be fit for the purposes for which the Works are intended as defined in the Contract.

The Contractor shall provide the Plant and Contractor’s Documents specified in the Contract, and all contractor’s Personnel, Goods, consumables and other things and services, whether of a temporary or permanent nature, required in and for this design, execution, completion and remedying of defects.

The Works shall include any work which is necessary to satisfy the Employer’s Requirements, or is implied by the Contract, and all works which (although not mentioned in the Contract) are necessary for stability or for the completion, or safe and proper operation, of the Works.

 

3 合同价格与付款方式的区别

 

ICC- Model-1 ——通用条款 Art. 4 按合同要求付款,若没有约定价格,按卖方现行价目表上所列价格。)[5]

付款条件:

记账       Open account

预付       Advance payment

信用证     Letter of Credit

托收       Documentary collection (D/A , D/P)

保函       Letter of Guarantee

 

 ICC-Model- 2 合同价格与付款方式: 

( 25.1 按合同要求付款,但价格不能变 )

Article 25 Contract Price

25.1 Contract Price. The Contract Price for the turnkey supply of the Plant is stated in Contract Schedule F.

 

Contract Schedule F

Price of the Contract (Article 25)

The contract price for the turnkey supply of the Plant is: ...................................................

 25.2 Price revision. The Contract Price is fixed and is not subject to revision, except in case the Commencement Date does not occur according to Article 3.3.

 Article 26 Payment conditions

 26.1 General. Payment of the Contract price shall be made by the Purchaser to the Supplier in accordance with the payment conditions set out in Contract Schedule G at a bank designated by the Supplier.

Contract Schedule G

Payment conditions (Article 26)

........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................

 

l       ICC-Model-3 合同价格与付款方式

41.2按工程进度付款,41.3 价格可能根据合同变化

 

Article 41  PAYMENT OF THE CONTRAC TPRICE

 41.1 As payment to the Contractor for the full and complete performance of the Works the Employer shall pay and the Contractor shall accept the sum set out as the Contract Price in the Contract as varied in accordance with the Contract.

 41.2 The Parties recognise and agree that the Contract Price is payable in instalments according to the progress of the Works in an Invoice Period and/or milestones as set out in an Appendix (if any) and otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this Contract.

 41.3 The Contract Price may be varied only in accordance with the Contract. The value of each payment will be established by the rules set out in this Chapter 6.

 

 

  Fidic -EPC   合同价格付款方式

 14.1 除非在专用条款中另有规定,工程款的支付应以总额合同价格为基础,按照合同规定进行调整。)

 

14.1 The Contract Price and Payment

 

Unless otherwise stated in the particular Conditions:

payment for the Works shall be made on the basis of the lump sum Contract Price, subject to adjustments in accordance with the Contract; and the Contractor shall pay all taxes, duties and fees required to be paid by him under the Contract, and the Contract Price shall not be adjusted for any of these costs, except as stated in Sub-Clause 13.7 [Adjustments for Changes in Legislation].

 

4 任命雇主代表的区别

l      ICC- Model- 1  (无)

l       ICC- Model -2:        

(卖方和买方可任命项目代表

              卖方和买方可各自在30内任命一名代表 )

(提倡双方任命代表)

Article 6 Assignment – Subcontractors – Parties’ representatives

 

6.4 Project Representative and Site Representative. Each Party will nominate within thirty (30) days from the date of signature of this Contract a Project Representative and a Site Representative. Nominations of each Party must be notified to the other Party in writing.

 

l       ICC- Model-3           

(雇主和承包商应任命项目代表

             雇主和承包商各应在7天内任命一名代表)

                  (强调双方任命代表) 

Article 18 REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PARTIES

 

18.1 Each Party shall appoint a Representative within seven Days of the Contract Date by notice to the other Party.

18.2 The Parties’ Representatives shall each have the appropriate professional qualifications or experience necessary for each of them to carry out their duties and exercise the authority specified in or required of them under the Contract in a competent and professional manner.

18.3 The Parties’ Representatives shall each be appointed to spend the majority of their time for the purpose of the execution of the Works and the performance of the Contract. This may be done on or off the Site.

                      

l       Fidic (EPC)        

                  (雇主和承包商任命项目代表

             雇主任命一名代表,承包商任命代表并授权)

         (不强调雇主任命代表,但强调承包商任命代表)

3 The Employer’s Administration

3.1 The Employer’s Representative

The Employer may appoint an Employer’s Representative to act on his behalf under the Contract. In this event, he shall give notice to the Contractor of the name, address, duties and authority of the Employer’s Representative.

4.3 Contractor’s Representative

The Contractor shall appoint the Contractor’s Representative and shall give him all authority necessary to act on the Contractor’s behalf under the Contract.

 

第三部分:不同合同范本的特点

2.1 合同文件的构成

l        ICC-Model-1         二合一         

具体条款    +     一般条款

Specific Conditions  +  General Conditions

A. Specific Conditions

These Specific Conditions have been prepared in order to permit the parties to agree the particular terms of their sale contract by completing the spaces left open or choosing (as the case may be) between the alternatives provided in this document. Obviously this does not prevent the parties from agreeing other terms or further details in box A-16 or in one or more annexes.

 

 B. General Conditions

Art. 1 GENERAL

1.1 These General Conditions are intended to be applied together with the Specific Conditions (part A) of the International Sale Contract (Manufactured Goods Intended for Resale), but they may also be incorporated on their own into any sale contract. Where these General Conditions (Part B) are used independently of the said Specific Conditions (Part A), any reference in Part B to Part A will be interpreted as a reference to any relevant specific conditions agreed by the parties. In case of contradiction between these General Conditions and any specific conditions agreed upon between the parties, the specific conditions shall prevail.

 

l        ICC-Model-2          二合一         

合同     +    合同附件

Contract   +  Attachments

 

Article 35 Contract documents

35.1 Contract and contract documents. This Contract includes this document and

its attached Annexes specified hereafter and subsequent alterations and additions

thereto agreed in writing.

This Contract constitutes the entire agreement between the Supplier and the

Purchaser with respect to the subject matter of the Contract and supersedes all

communications, negotiations and agreements (whether written or oral) of the

Parties with respect thereto made prior to the date of the Contract.

Wherever in this contract the word “agreed” is used, it shall be read as meaning

agreed in writing or confirmed in writing.

35.2 Attachments. The following attachments constitute an integral part of this

Contract:

Contract Schedules Specific issues to be determined by the Parties

Contract Schedule A Definition of the Site

Contract Schedule B Events to occur before Commencement Date (Article 3.2)

Contract Schedule C Contract termination before effectiveness (Article 3.3)

 

 

l       ICC- Model-3          三合一

   合同协议书 + 合同条件 + 附件

Main Form + Conditions of Contract + Schedule of Contractual Amendments

 

Article 7 INTERPRETATION OF THE CONTRACT

 

7.1 The documents forming the Contract are to be read together and interpreted as mutually explanatory of one another. If there is a direct inconsistency in specific obligations, then for the purposes of interpretation, and unless otherwise agreed, the priority of the Contract documents shall be in accordance with the following sequence:

(1) The Main Contract Form and the Schedule of Contractual Amendments;

(2) The Conditions of Contract;

(3) The Appendices (if any) (excluding the Schedule of Contractual Amendments);

(4) The Employer’s Requirements;[6]

(5) The Tender;

(6) The Assumptions (if any); and

(7) Any other documents forming part of the Contract.

 

l       Fidic -EPC             “四合一

合同协议书 + 通用条件 + 专用条件 + 附件

   Contract Agreement + Particular Conditions + General Conditions + Other Documents

1.5 Priority of Document

The documents forming the Contract are to be taken as mutually explanatory of one another. For the purposes of interpretation, the priority of the documents shall be in accordance with the following sequence:

the Contract Agreement; (合同协议书)

the Particular Conditions; (专用条件)[7]

these General Conditions; (本通用条件)

the Employer’s Requirements; (雇主要求)

the Tender and other documents forming part of the Contract .  (投标书和构成合同组成部分的其他文件)

 

 

第四部分:ICC-M-3Fidic EPC合同的比较

1.     ICC-M3Fidic EPC的文字基本相等:

 

I CC-M-3     正文字数:27485

Fidic- EPC     正文字数:28108(多525字)

 

2.     合同条款核心基本相同

I CC-M-2     共计 13 67 238 [8]

Fidic-EPC      共计 20 164

 

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ……………….. . . . .. 5

ICC MODEL TURNKEY CONTRACT FOR MAJOR PROJECTS . . . . . . . . . ….................... . … . . . 7 MAINCONTRACTFORM.................................................. ………………………….………...11 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT.................................................................................................13

Chapter1 GENERAL AND PRELIMINARY ARTICLES......................................... ..............13

Article 1-12  ( + 14 )

Chapter2 THE PARTIES’OBLIGATIONS................................................................................23

Article 13-20 (+ 24)

Chapter3 THE EXECUTION OF THE CONTRACT................................................................29

Article 21-31 (+ 24)

Chapter4 DESIGN–RESPONSIBILITYANDMANAGEMENT;VARIATIONS.....................37

Article 32-35 (+44 )

Chapter5 COMMENCEMENT;THETIMETOTAKING-OVERSCHEDULINGANDPROGRESS……...47

Article 36-39 ( +27 )

Chapter6 CONTRACT PRICE AND PAYMENT......................................................................55

Article 40-44 ( +15 )

Chapter7 COMPLETIONANDTAKING-OVEROFTHEWORKSBYTHEEMPLOYER....59

Article 45-48 (+31)

Chapter8 DEFECTCORRECTIONPERIOD............................................................................65

Article 49(+2)

Chapter9 ALLOCATIONOFRISKANDRESPONSIBILITYANDEXCLUSIONSFROMLIABILITY…..69

Article 50-55(+6)

Chapter10 FORCEMAJEUREANDTERMINATIONOFTHECONTRACT.........................73

Article 56-57(+31)

Chapter11 INSURANCE...............................................................................................................81

Article 58(+19)

Chapter12MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS...........................................................................87

Article 59-65(+17)

Chapter13CLAIMS,DISPUTERESOLUTIONANDARBITRATION…………….................93

Article 66-67(+8)

 

FIDIC EPC 共计 20 164  

contents

1 General Provisions 1.11.14

2 The Employer  2.12.5

3 The Employer’s Administration 3.13.5

4 The Contractor  4.1 4.24 

5 Design  5.15.8 

6 Staff and Labour 6.16.11 

7 Plant, Materials and Workmanship  7.1 7.8  

8 Commencement, Delays and Suspension 8.18.12  

9 Tests on Completion 9.19.

10 Employer’s Taking Over  10.1 10.3

11 Defects Liability  11.1 11.11 

12 Tests after Completion  12.1 12.4

13 Variations and Adjustments 13.113.8

14 Contract price and Payment 14.114.15

15 Termination by Employer  15.1 15.5  

16 Suspension and termination by Contractor  16.1 16.4 

17 Risk and Responsibility  17.117.6  

18 Insurance  18.1 18.4

19 Force Majeure  19.119.7  

20 Claims, Disputes and Arbitration  20.1 20.8  

 

3.      ICC-M-3   的特点:

 

3.1    ICC-M-3  的条款简明,入门快。尤其具有创新意义的是在某些重要的款项之前出现大写提示,便于阅读和理解关键概念。

 

3.2      ICC2011年出版发行了与ICC-M-3相匹配的分包合同范本:ICC Model Subcontract (ICC Model back-to-back subcontract to ICC Turnkey Contract for Major Projects)

4.      Fidic EPC 的优点:

 

4.1    Fidic EPC 的定义条款按合同的运行逻辑分类,突出了合同的核心概念和词义内涵,且便于查阅。与按拼音排列合同定义的方法比较,这种方法具有不可比拟的优越性。

4.2    Fidic EPC 结构清晰 “四合一”

(合同协议书 + 通用条件 + 专用条件 + 附件)

4.3    Fidic EPC 的通用条件与专用条件互为一致,便于使用。

4.4    Fidic EPC 有一系列合同范本(红、黄、橙、、绿),

             有利于《总承包合同》与《分包合同》的统一。

4.5    Fidic EPC 有中英对照本,便于准确理解和实施。

 

 



[1] FIDIC是国际咨询工程师联合会的法文名字缩写

[2] UN Global Compact —联合国全球契约

 

[3] 注释1ICC-1没有对Supplier Purchaser 给出专门定义

[4] (注释2:由于该合同中的土建施工由买方承担,合同范本指出,涉及土建的合同则应采用更为合适的总承包合同范本 ICC 2

 

[5]国际合同中没有价格规定的可能性较小。

[6] 注释3:合同文件包括: (4)雇主要求(5)标书

 

[7] 注释4:在合同文件的法律效力方面,专用条件优于通用条件。详细构成见Fidic EPC p 214 2

[8] Chapter= Article=  + 表示“项”

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