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~恒~温~控~制

(2008-11-10 20:14:36)
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杂谈

Climate Control恒温控制

   

HVAC-Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

HVAC-热气系统、通风系统和冷气系统。

Your boat’s heating, ventilation and air conditioning system provide climate control, keeping your cool in tropical summer weather, dry in muggy August humidity, and toasty-warm during the last October cruise of the season. They guard against mold and mildew, extend your cruising season, and enhance the value of your investment in your boat. We discuss heating on the previous page. What follow will help you design the system for ventilation and air conditioning your boat. 船上的热气系统、通风系统和冷气系统提供恒温控制条件,在热带的夏天让你感觉凉爽,在闷热的潮湿的八月帮你去湿气。在十月巡航的季节给你提供一个舒适温暖的环境。这些系统可以防止真菌和发霉,从而达到延长巡航的时间,而且你对船的投资也会升值。 我们先开始讨论热气系统。 接下来将帮助你设计你船上的通风系统和冷气系统。

 

Ventilation / 通风系统

Proper ventilation is important for the maintenance of your boat, and is a necessary for the comfort of you and your crew. / 适当的通风对你的船的维护是重要的,而且为了让你和你的全体船员感到舒适,适量的通风也是必须的。

 

A good ventilation system will: / 好的通风系统应该是:

1.Reduce moisture and humidity below decks when the boat is left unattended. / 当船无人看管的时候,可以减少甲板以下舱内的湿气和潮气。

 

2.Reduce the chances of mold, mildew and musty air development caused by trapped moisture and humidity in the boat. / 可以减少由留在船内的湿气和潮气中的真菌及霉菌在空气中增多的机会。

 

3.Help electronics and fabrics last longer by maintaining a drier climate. / 通过维持一个相当干燥的气候来延长电子产品和纤维产品的寿命。

4.Reduce the likelihood of blisters caused by moist air saturation of the hull. / 减少由湿气浸入船壳而所引起气泡的可能性。

 

Active and Passive Ventilation / 强制通风和自然通风

Vents fall into basic categories: passive or active. Passive ventilators, such as cowl vents, clamshell vents, louvers, grilles, ventilating sails, ports and hatches simply provide an access path for air to enter or leave the interior of the boat. As long as either the boat or the air itself are moving, they work just fine. Of course on those hot, still days when the only things moving are the mosquitoes, they’re not much help. / 通风口由两种基本类别:强制通风和。自然通风通风口,如整流罩通风口,蛤壳式通风口,百叶通风,格子窗通风,船航行中的风,舷窗和舱盖都给空气流通提供一条路径给空气进入或者流出船内。 只要船或空气本身在移动,这些通风口就能起到作用。 当然,在那些炎热没有风的日子里,只有蚊子在飞的时候,这些通风口就起不到多大的作用了。

 

Active ventilators, such as Nicro’s Power vent 3000, Day/Night Plus Solar Vents and stainless 12 volts vents all incorporate a fan to keep air moving even when the boat or breeze is still. Solar energy or ship’s power is used to power the fan depending on the ventilator. These vents come with both intake and exhaust fan blades for flexibility in creating your ventilation system. / 强制通风,如Nicro 3000动力通风,白天/夜晚加上太阳能通风口和12伏的不锈钢通风口结合一个鼓风机用来保持船在静止甚至是微风情况下空气也能流通。太阳能或船的动力也用来启动鼓风机,然后再加上通风设备。 这些通风设备有配备进风和排气的风机叶片,随之就产生了通风系统.

 

Designing a ventilation system that works / 设计一个有效的通风系统

A properly designed ventilation system provides adequate air circulation throughout the boat without allowing water from waves, spray or rain to come aboard. Experts recommend that your ventilation system should provide at least one air change every hour. Set up system to provide a “cross flow” of intake and exhaust ventilation wherever possible. If you only add one active ventilation, use it for exhaust. / 一个设计适当的通风系统能够在没有浪花,水花和雨水进到船里的情况下,保证全船的空气流通。 专家推荐你的通风系统应该至少要每小时换一下气。 在任何可能的地方建立通风系统用以保证进风和排风的的交叉流动。 如果你仅只增加一个强制通风,那就用它来排费气.

 

A typical 30-footer has about 800cu.ft.of below decks interior volume. Unfortunately, this space is often broken up into distinct cabins or compartments that may restrict the free movement of air throughout the boat. Therefore, simply installing a pair of vents rated for 800cu.ft. per hour of airflow may not be adequate to get the total ventilating job done. / 例如30尺长的甲板以下内部体积大约 800 立方尺。 然而,这个空间会被分隔为几个不同的船舱或隔间. 因此,如果只是简单的安装一对排风设施用以每小时排放率为800立方尺的空气流动量是无法达到通风的要求的.

 

Each cabin and head should have some kind of ventilation, especially if the space can be closed off from the rest of the boat. Louvered doors, or vent grilles in solid doors help air circulate into lockers, forepeaks and other isolated areas of the boat. / 每个船舱和浴室都应该有某种通风设施,尤其是当如果这个地方与船的其它地方隔开的时候。 在实心门上的百叶或格子板都可以帮助空气循环进入柜子、前舱和其船上其它的隔间。

 

During wet or rough weather, you’ll need to be able to shut off or remove vents to prevent water from finding its way below. Racing boats may need to use vents that can be removed while the boats is in use in order to keep the decks free of possible snags. / 当遭遇到潮湿或糟糕天气的时候,你将要不得不关上或移动通风设施来阻止水从下面一直浸过来。 赛船可能需要使用能移动的排气口,使船在航行中能够保持甲板上没有可能存在的障碍。

 

Do You Need an Air Conditioner? / 你需要装冷气系统吗?

Air conditioning system will be one of the largest electrical amperage draws when you are under way, but use modest AC current when connected to shore power. At the dock, a 5000-16000BTU AC-powered system draw between 4 and 13 amps. Under way in a powerboat, these amperages are manageable. Under sail or at anchor, you’ll need a sizable inverter and the battery banks to support those loads, or a genset. What makes these electrical investments worth considering? Summer cruising locations that combine high heat, humilities in the 80 to 90 percent range, and the presence of mosquitoes or other insects, requiring screened cabin areas that restrict ventilation. Air conditioning opens these locations to comfortable boating. / 当你在航行时,冷气系统将会是最耗电的电力设备之一,但是当接到岸电时,只要使用正确的AC交流电就可以了。 当在码头时,一个 5000-16000BTU 的 AC 交流电冷气就要4到13安培的电来带动.机动船在航行时,就很容易去控制这些安培数了。 在启航或泊船时,你将会需要一个相当大容量的变流器和舱内电瓶承担那些负荷或发电机。 是什么使得这些电路的投资值得考虑呢? 夏天巡航的地区总是结合在高热,湿度范围在80%到90%的地区并伴有蚊子和其他昆虫的出现,需要纱窗屏蔽住舱但也限制了通风。 所以对这些地方开放冷气能使得其让人感觉舒适。

 

DC Air Conditioning / 直流电空调

We now are offering the DC Breeze from glacier Bay. The 12V model about 50 amps, a substantial amount of power—meaning, you’ll want your engine running, and produces 5000BTUs. It looks great for the 20’ to 25’ powerboat. DC air conditioning is simpler to install and more efficient than an AC unit, because you do not need an inverter and the waste of its roughly 85% power conversion effectiveness. / glacier Bay现在有提供DC直流电空调。 12V的这一款大约是 50个安培,这是一种可观的动力,意味着你能使主机运转并产生 5000BTUs。 这对于20尺和50尺的机动船来说是是很好的。 DC冷气系统安装更简单而且比起AC 冷气系统更有效,因为你不需要变流器并且也不用浪费大约85%的能量转换效率。

 

AC Air Conditioning / AC冷气系统

Hatch mounted portables: Your alternatives start with a portable unit like the Carry on, a good choice for cooling the small cabin of a cuddy cabin powerboat or overnighter sailboat. Similar to window-mounted home portable. / 巧妙的舱盖安装: 你的选择是以轻便为主,这对一些机动船的上的小的船舱或者是帆船来说都是个很好的选择。 类似家庭的窗口安装。

 

Self-contained units: Like the Cool Mate or Cabin Mate are typically the best choice for boats up to 40ft. all of the major components are mounted on a single chassis, which is installed in the living area under a bunk or settee, or in a locker. They require through-hull connection to draw cooling water into the unit. / 像单独冷气或是有水手舱情况下这种独立式冷气系统对于大至40 ft 的船来说是最好的选择。 所有的主要部件都被装在一个单独的底盘上,而这个底盘都装在住舱的床下,长椅下或是柜子里。 这样他们需要全船贯通的连接使冷水进入到冷气系统里。

 

Central Systems, also known as split systems, are usually found on boats up to 80fg in length. A condensing unit is mounted in the engine room or other mechanical space and connected by copper tubes to an air handler in the living area. / 中央系统,也叫做分离系统,通常在长达80尺的船上可以看到。 冷凝压缩组件通常是安装在机舱或其他机械空间并且在住舱区域是由铜管连接到鼓风机上。

 

Heating/Cooling or Cool Only / 热气系统/冷气系统

Central systems and some self-contained units, like the Cabin Mate air conditioners, heat as well as cool. They pull out of the water to warm the interior of your boat. Though affected by water temperature, they can cool your boat in 90F waters and heat your boat in waters as low as 40F. / 中央系统和一些独立的系统,像水手舱的冷气机,热气系统和冷气系统一样。他们可以脱离水的温度来加热船的室内,即使会受水温影响,他们也能在 90华氏度的水温中给你的船制冷同时也能在水温低至40华氏度的时候给你的船加热。

 

Cool Mate Self Contained Air Conditioners provide straight cool-only. A complete installation kit is standard, including all the pumps, hoses, ducts, fittings, and everything else you need. The pre-charged units are the right size for air conditioning the cabin of a small express or cabin cruiser, in the 25’ to 40’ size range. / 独立的冷气空调机只能用作直接的制冷。一个完整的标准的安装系统应该是包含所有的水泵、水管、输送管、配件和其他你所需要的东西。预先充电的系统对长度在25尺到40尺船的住舱和小的巡洋舰上的冷气系统都是大小刚好的。

 

Reverse Cycle Cabin Mate systems include a programmable digital thermostat control which allows effortless adjustment of temperature and fan settings, as well as programmable options to control the environment in the boat, including humidity control when the boat is left unattended, fan speed selections, de-icing mode, alternate air sensor, compressor fail-safe protection, and others. Simply add a duct kit, seawater circulation pump, and a Universal Seawater kit, and you are ready to begin installing your unit. / 冷热循环独立式系统包括可使用的数字自动调温控制器,可以很容易的调节温度和鼓风机的设置,从而可以自动控制船上的环境,包括船在无人看管时的湿气控制,风扇速度选择,除冰模式,交替空气感应器,压缩机自动防故障装置的保护等等。 只要装上一个输送管设备,海水循环泵和一个整体式海水设备,你就可以准备好开始安装你的系统了。

 

Sizing Your AC System / 规范你的AC系统

Air conditioning system are rated in BTUs, or British Thermal Units, a universal measure of heating and cooling. To calculate the number of BTUs needed to cool or heat your space follow the steps below, then select the unit with the capacity you need. / 冷气系统在BTUs上是额定的,或者说在英国热量单位(一种全世界对冷和热的标准量度单位)上是额定的。 计算 BTUs 的数字需要按以下的步骤来制冷和加热区域,然后选择你需要的容量的单位。

Step 1: Pick the factor(BTU per sq. ft. per hour) that applies to the space to be cooled. /

第 1 步骤: 选择适用于要冷却的空间的因素 (每小时每立方的BTU)。

       Above Deck          Below Deck         Mid-Deck /        

甲板以上            甲板下               甲板中

Moderate/Tropical    Moderate/Tropical   Moderate/Tropical

   适度的/热带的      适度的/热带的       适度的/热带的

Factor: 60     90         90       120      120      150 / 因素: 60     90         90       120      120      150

 

Select Moderate Factors where the maximum air temperature is 95F, maximum water temperature is 80F, and moderate humidity exists, Select Tropical Factors where maximum air temperature is 110F, water temperature is 100F, and high humidity exists. / 选择一个最大气温是95华氏度,最大的水温是 80华氏度 ,以及适度湿气的中等环境,选择一个最大气温110华氏度,水温是 100华氏度,并且是高湿度的最热环境。

 

Step 2: Measure the area(length*width) of the space to be cooled. 第 2 步骤: 测量要冷却的空间的区域 (长度*宽度)。

 

Step 3: Multiply the Factor selected in Step 1 by the area form step 2. Example: an above deck cabin in moderate climate (Factor 60 ) has 100 square feet of area to be cooled. 60*100 =6000BRUs. A 6000BTU unit is the minimum size for this cabin. If there is more than one space, perform these calculations for each space, and then add them together. /第 3 步骤: 将步骤一中选择的环境因素乘以步骤二中的区域大小。 例子:甲板上方的住舱在中等环境下(因素 60) 有100平方的区域需要冷却。 60*100=6000BRUs。 A 6000 BTU 则是这个住舱的最小值。 如果不仅只有一个空间,则先把每个空间进行运算,然后把他们加起来就得到你要的BTU值了。

 

Step 4: Select an air conditioning unit that is rated equal to or 10% to 15% larger than your total calculation. A unit that is oversized too much can “short cycle,” and may not long enough to remove the humidity. A multiple unit system is required to produce 6000BTUs to greater. / 第 4 步骤: 选择一个相等的额定的冷气机组或者比你的全部计算大10%-15%。 一个太大冷气机组会缩短其周期导致不能充分除去湿气。 一个多样化的冷气机组需能产生 6000BTUs 才是比比较好的。

 

Choose a Ducting Kit: Single duct kits are good for small boats or other installations that don’t require a single A/C unit to cool/heat multiple cabins. A dual duct kit allows the boat owner to use one A/C unit to cool/heat two separate areas within the boat. / 选择输送管装备: 单一的输送管装备对小的船或者其他的不需要A/C电机组来冷却或是加热住舱的船来说是很好的。 双重的输送管装备可以让船主使用一个A/C电机组来冷却或是加热船上的两个分开的区域

 

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