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宋朝究竟有多发达2

(2005-11-02 00:35:26)
分类: 华夏历史
NOVA: Tea and restaurants are certainly two important gifts the Song people gave to the world. What were some of the other Chinese inventions of this period that had a profound influence on the course of civilization?(问:茶和餐馆当然是宋人赠送给世界的礼物。那么,在这个时期中国人还有什么发明对文明进程产生了深远的影响?)
Yates: Gunpowder completely transformed the way wars were waged and contributed to the eventual establishment of might over right. In my own research, I have been able to refute the common notion that the Chinese invented gunpowder but only used it for fireworks. I'm sure that they discovered military uses for it. I have found the earliest illustration of a cannon in the world, which dates  om the change-over  om the Northern Song to the Southern Song around 1127, which was 150 years before the development of the cannon in the West. The Song also used gunpowder to make fire lances - actually flame throwers - and many other gunpowder weapons, such as anti-personnel mines, which are thankfully now being taken out of general use. (答:火药彻底转变了战争的方式,为强权即公理这一法则的建立做出了贡献。在我本人的研究中,我反驳一种论调,即中国人发明了火药,但是只是在放焰火的时候才使用。我肯定他们发现了火药在战争中德用处。我发现世界上最早对大炮的描述是在北宋到南宋过渡的这一阶段即1127年左右,这比西方发展大炮的时间早150年。。宋人还利用火药制造火矛 - 其实是为了投掷火苗 - 以及其它很多使用火药的武器,例如地雷,这种武器现在已经幸运地被禁止普遍使用。)
Needless to say, the cannon was used by the kings of Europe to fundamentally alter the social structure of the European world. It enabled kings to destroy the castles of the feudal lords. And it enabled, therefore, the centralized nation-state to develop. (不需要说明的是,大炮被欧洲的国王们用于从根本上改变欧洲地区的社会结构。它使国王们得以消灭封建领主。所以,它使得中央集权的民族-国家得以发展。)
By the end of the Song Dynasty, the Chinese invented multiple-stage rockets. If we hadn't had that, maybe we would not have been able to put a man on the moon. It was that fundamental an idea. Joseph Needham, an historian of Chinese science and technology, also argues that the notion of an explosion in a self-contained cylinder also permitted the development of the internal combustion engine and the steam engine. Our basic modes of transportation would not have been possible without this Chinese invention. (到宋朝末期,中国人发明了多极火箭。如果我们没有它,我们可能不能把人类送上月球。它就是这样一个关乎根本的思想。李约瑟,这个中国科学技术史学家,也主张:在密闭柱形容器内的爆炸这种研究导致了内燃机和蒸汽机的发展。如果没有中国人的发明,我们当代基本的运输模式将不存在。)。
IV(待续)
 
How did the Chinese invention of gunpowder move  om East to West?(问:中国发明的火药是怎样从东方传到了西方?)
Yates: Although scholars often consider the Song Dynasty to have been very weak, its use of gunpowder was the reason it was able to hold off the Mongols for many decades. Eventually, the Mongols were able to capture Chinese artisans and use the latest gunpowder technology against the Chinese. The Mongols used those people who had a special knowledge of technology and employed them in their own armies as engineers. They carried that technology to the West very rapidly because it was very helpful in their conquests. (答:虽然学者们经常觉得宋朝很弱,但它使用火药却是它能把蒙古大军钳制数十年的缘由。最后,蒙古人捕获了中国工匠,利用最新的火药技术攻击中国人。蒙古人利用这些有特殊才能的人,让他们作为军中工程师。他们迅速把火药带到了西方,因为火药对於他们的征服非常有帮助。)
What was interesting with this transfer of technology is that it goes both ways. After the introduction of the cannon and gunpowder to the West, Westerners very quickly became expert with cannons. They cast bronze cannons that were eventually much better than those the Chinese could produce. The Western bronze cannon was then brought back to China by the Jesuits in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Ming Dynasty, which fought the Manchus, employed Jesuit priests to cast cannons that were more advanced than the Chinese had at that time. (这种技术的转移非常迷人的是它的双向交流。大炮和火药介绍到西方之后,西方人很快称为大炮的专家。他们铸造铜制的大炮,最后比中国人制造的大炮好得多。西方的铜炮在16和17世纪由耶稣教士带回中国。和满族战斗的明朝使用耶稣教士制造大炮,这种大炮比中国人现有的先进很多。)
系列V(待续)
 
NOVA: You've made a strong case for the impact of gunpowder all over the world. But were there major non-military inventions during the Song Dynasty that had an impact worldwide? (问:你举了非常生动的例子指出火药对全世界的影响。但是,宋朝时有没有非军事的发明对世界产生了影响?)
Yates: Printing and movable type were certainly two of them. Printing was actually invented by the Buddhists in the eighth century for dissemination o eligious images and texts. But in the Song Dynasty, the government promoted the publication of the Confucian texts called "The Canons." These texts had to be studied by examination candidates. Once you passed the examinations you were eligible to become an official. So many copies of the Confucian texts were published at this time. In addition, the government popularized the use of printing for the dissemination of technical manuals, such as agricultural manuals and works on medicine. Eventually, private printing presses started, which fundamentally altered the world of letters and dissemination of knowledge. (答:印刷和活字印刷术肯定是这类发明中的两个。印刷术其实是8世界的佛教徒为了传播宗教画像和经文发明的。但是在宋朝,政府促进儒学经文儒经的传播。那些应试的学者必须学习这些经文。只要考试通过,就可以被选为官员。所以,儒经在当时大量出版发行。另外,政府让印刷术大众化,用以传播技术手册,诸如农业手册和医药书籍。最终,私人出版社产生了,这改变了世界文字的发展,传播了知识。)
In the 11th century, a famous literary artist by the name of Shen Gua records the invention of movable-type printing by a man by the name of Bi Sheng. It was this invention that was eventually taken over to the West and used by Gutenberg for the printing of the Bible. Needless to say, this had a profound effect on the nature of knowledge and the development of literature. So this is probably the number-one invention of the Song Dynasty. (在11世纪,一个著名的文学艺术家Shen Gua记录了一个名字叫毕升的人发明了活字印刷术。就是这个技术最后被传到西方,被Gutenberg用来印刷圣经。说句多余的话,这对知识的本质和文学的发展产生了深远的影响。所以,这 可能是宋朝的第一发明。)
VI(待续)
NOVA: Did the development of printing change China the way it would change Europe? (问:活字印刷术是否象改变欧洲那样改变了中国?)
Yates: The effect of printing was different in East and West because of the nature of the Chinese language. The Chinese language, when it is written, uses characters or graphs, sort of like ideograms. It is not an alphabet like we know it. As a consequence, there are literally thousands of Chinese characters. Obviously for most types of writing, you don't need the 48,000 different Chinese characters. You only need to use 3,000 to 10,000, something like that. (答:活字印刷术的作用在东西方是不同的,这是因为中国文字的特点。中国语言,当你书写的时候,使用图,象染色体模式图一样。它不是我们熟悉的字母。结果,中国字成千上万。显然,常的书写不需要48000个汉字。你只需要3000到10000,大致如此。)
Movable-type printing was more practical, with a very limited number of symbols, such as the letters used in European alphabetic languages. In Chinese writing, you had to have a very large number of characters, each individually carved to set in the press. So even though they invented movable type, it actually was never as useful as wood-block printing --carving the blocks of each page separately and independently. So that was the reason why there were some books printed using movable type, but it never really replaced wood-block printing in the way it did in the West. (活字印刷术对於数目极少的符号文字如欧洲字母语言更加实用。中文的书写需要掌握很大量的符号,这些符号在印刷时刻在版面上。所以,即使他们发明了活字印刷术,这一技术也从来没有象木刻印刷术一样有用 - 木刻印刷术是把每一页单独刻在木头上。这就是为什么即使有些书是采用活版印刷,但是,活字印刷术从来没有象在欧洲一样代替木刻印刷术。)
NOVA: Was movable type another example of technology moving  om East to West, or was it an example of an innovation developing in the East and West simultaneously? (问:活字印刷术是又一例从东方传入西方的技术,或是一例东西方各自同时发展的技术?)
Yates: It's very unclear, but it does appear that there was a transfer  om East to West. The Mongol invaders of China were able to use their highly developed organization and cavalry to conquer all of Central Asia, including parts of India, the Middle East, and Europe. So the invention was probably transferred to the West as a result of the opening up of the trade routes and the lines of communication established by the Mongols. I'm not saying that Gutenberg actually had access to a Chinese press; that's highly unlikely. Rather, he probably got wind of the idea of printing through some unknown and lost source. It's rather ironic that Gutenberg was recently voted the man of the millennium, when it was the Chinese who actually invented the technology. (答:不是很清楚,但是似乎是从东方传入的西方。侵入中国的蒙古人利用他们组织高度发达的机构和骑兵征服了中亚全部,包括部分印度地区,中东,还有欧洲。所以,此发明很可能经过设立的商路传入西方。我不是说Gutenberg事实上获取了中国印刷术;那是非常不可能的。应该说,他很可能从某些我们不知道的渠道听说了这个技术。很具讽刺性的是,Gutenberg最近被评选为千年风云人物,但实际上却是中国人发明了那个技术。)
VII(待续)

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