加载中…
个人资料
kiethzhang
kiethzhang
  • 博客等级:
  • 博客积分:0
  • 博客访问:153,552
  • 关注人气:50
  • 获赠金笔:0支
  • 赠出金笔:0支
  • 荣誉徽章:
相关博文
推荐博文
谁看过这篇博文
加载中…
正文 字体大小:

英语反意疑问句

(2011-07-28 18:16:01)
标签:

宋体

反意疑问句

主语

不定代词

英语反意疑问句

一.反意疑问句的定义和种类

反意疑问句又叫附加问句(tag question),它是一种英语口语的常见句型,它提出情况或看法,询问对方同意与否或表示关注、惊讶、怀疑、反感、威胁、挑衅、愤怒等情感色彩。反意疑问句通常由两部分构成:前一部分用陈述句的形式(statement),后一部分是一个附着在前一部分上的简短问句。所附简短问句中的主语、谓语和时态要与陈述句的保持一致,并且其主语应用人称代词,谓语用系动词、助动词情态动词代替实意动词,否定形式要缩写。当说话者的目的在疑问时,用升调;其他情况则用降调。

反意疑问句有以下五种类型:

1.肯定陈述+否定简短问句。例如:Jack went home, didnt he?

2.否定陈述+肯定简短问句。例如:Alice wasnt informed, was she?

3.肯定陈述+肯定简短问句。例如:It’s fine, is it?

4.否定陈述+否定简短问句。例如:They haven’t done it, haven’t they?

5. 祈使句+简短问句。例如:Come here at seven, will you?

但最常用的还是上面的第一和第二种,用来表示询问对方情况或确认事实是否怎样。例如:

You left the gas on, didnt you? 你让煤气开着,是不是?

You didnt leave the gas on, did you? 你没让煤气开着,是吗?

You have locked the door, havent you? 你已经把门锁好了,不是吗?

You havent locked the door, have you? 你没有锁门,是吗?

第三和第四种又叫同向反意问句,一般表示对事实的“关注” 或“挑衅” 威胁”,等。例如:

So hes getting married, is he? 这么说他要结婚了,是吗?

You want to make trouble, do you? 你想找事,对吗?

You cant pay me the money, cant you? 你还不起钱了,对吗?

第五种主要是用于征求意见。例如:

Open the window, will you? 把窗子打开,行吗?

Please bring her with you next time, wont you? 请你下次把她带来,行吗?

注意反意问句的回答。例如:

---You didn’t attend the meeting, did you? 你没参加会议,是吧?

---Yes, I did. 不,我参加了。

---No, I didn’t. 对,我没参加。

二.反意疑问句的特殊句型

  1陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren't I. 例如:

  I'm as tall as your sisteraren't I? 我和你姐姐一样高,对吗?

2陈述部分主语是指示代词that, this或合成不定代词everything, nothing等词时, 疑问部分主语用it; These/thosethey例如:

This is a plane, isn't it? 这是一架飞机,是吗?

Everything is ready, isn't it? 万事俱备,不是吗?

These are textbooks, aren’t they? 这些是教科书,对吗?

3陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也可以用单数he. 例如:

  Everyone has known the answer, haven't they? (hasn't he?) 大家都知道答案了,是吧?

Nobody wants it, do they? (does he?) 这个没人要,是吧?

4陈述部分的主语是不定代词one时,反意疑问句的主语可以用one,也可用you(美式英语用he)。例如:

One should be ready to help others, shouldn't one? 每个人都应该乐于助人,是吧?

One must be honest, mustn’t one? 一个人要诚实,对吧?

  5陈述部分的主语是everything, nothing, anythingsomething 时,反意疑问句的主语应用代词it。例如:

Something is wrong with my radio, isn't it? 我的收音机出毛病了,是吧?

6.陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。例如:

Neither you nor he is Chinese, are we? 你和他都不是中国人,对吗?

7.陈述部分是非谓语动词或主语从句作主语,疑问部分的主语用it。例如:  Learning/To learn English is very important, isnt it? 学英语很重要,是吗?

What he said at the meeting has left us a deep impression, hasnt it?他在会上的发言给我们留下了深刻的印象,对吗?

8.陈述部分谓语是wish,反意问句用may。例如:

I wish to have a word with you, may I? 我希望可以和你说话,可以吗?

  9.陈述部分有have to/had to,疑问部分常用don't/didn't +主语的形式。例如:

We have to get here at eight tomorrow, don't we? 我们必须在明天八点到,不是吗?

Have表示“有”时,可以用一下几种形式:

She has something important to do today, hasn’t she?

She has something important to do today, doesn’t she?

She has got something important to do today, hasn’t she? 她今天有重要的事要做,不是吗?

  10 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用usedn't/didn't +主语的形式。例如:

  He used to go to the countryside, didn't/usedn't he? 他过去常去乡下,不是吗?

  11陈述部分有had better疑问句部分用hadn't+主语。例如:

  You'd better do it by yourself, hadn't you? 你最好亲手做,不是吗

  12陈述部分有would rather,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。例如:

  He would rather give it up, wouldn't he? 他宁愿放弃,不是吗?

  13陈述部分有'd like to疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。例如:

  You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you? 你想和我一起去,不是吗?

  14.陈述部分含有ought to,疑问部分可用shouldn't / oughtn't to+主语。例如:

He ought to know what to do, oughtn't/shouldn't he? 他应该知道该做什么,不是吗?

15带情态动词dareneed的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need/dare +主语。例如:  

We need not do it again, need we ? 我们不必再做了,对吗?

  He dare not say so, dare he? 他不敢说,是吗?

  当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do +主语。例如:

She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she? 她不敢一个人回家,是吗?

16陈述部分有must,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。

  1must表示应该,其疑问部分用mustn't(不应该)。例如:

  You must work hard next term, mustn't you ? 下学期你应该努力学习,对吗?

  2must表示必须,其疑问部分用needn't(不必)。例如:

  They must finish the work today, needn’t they? 他们今天必须要完成这项工作,是吗?

  3mustn't表示禁止时,疑问部分就可以用mustmay。例如:

  You mustn’t stop your car here, must you? 你不能把车停在这地方,知道吗?

  4must表示推测,疑问部分必须与must 后面的主要动词相呼应。例如:

  现在动作或存在的情况的推测

  You must know the answer to the exercise, don't you? 你一定知道这项练习的答案,是不是?

  That must be your bed, isn't it? 那一定是你的床,是吗?

  过去发生的动作或存在的情况的推测

  a. 表示肯定推测时,句中陈述部分没有表示过去的时间状语,疑问部分用现在完成时haven’t / hasn’t + 主语)。例如:

You must have told her about it, haven’t you? 你一定把这事告诉她了,是吗?

  b. 陈述部分有表示过去的时间状语,疑问部分用一般过去时didn’t + 主语)。例如:

She must have read the novel last week, didn’t she? 她上星期一定读了这本小说了,是吗?

  c. 表示否定推测用can't/cannot, 不能用mustn’t(禁止)。例如:

  He can't have been to your home. 他不可能去过你家。

17省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will/won’t you。例如:

  Don't say that again, will you? 这个就不要再说了,行吗?

Go with me, will you / won't you? 和我一起去,行吗?

18Let's 开头的祈使句,后用shall/shan't we?; Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will/won't you? 例如:

  Let's go shopping, shall/shan't we? 咱们一起去购物,好码?

Let us go playing outside, wil/lwon't you? 请你允许我们出去玩,好码?

19陈述部分含有no, nothing, nobody, never, few, little seldom, hardly, rarely等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定形式。例如:

  The man made no answer, did he? 那个人没回答,是吗?

Some plants hardly bear seeds, do they ? 有些植物几乎不结籽,对吗?

You got nothing from him, did you? 你从他那儿什么也没得到,是吗?

  20.否定前后缀视为肯定词,其反意疑问句用否定形式。

  It is impossible, isn't it? 这不可能,不是吗?

He is not unkind to you, is he? 他对你不是不好,是吗?

It’s hopeless, isn’t it? 此事没希望了,对吧?

21陈述部分含“too...to”时,其疑问部分用形式。例如:

The work is too hard for you to do, is it? 这份工作太难了你做不了,是吗?

22陈述部分是"there be"结构,疑问部分用there。例如:

  There is some furniture inside, isn't there? 里面有些家具,是吗?

There will not be any trouble, will there? 不会有麻烦,是吗?

23当主句是由so引起的一个句子,而且译为这么说来时,疑问部分的谓语形式(肯定或否定)应与主句保持一致。

  So you have seen the film, have you? 这么说你已经看过了,是吗?

So he has not been to Beijing, hasn't he? 这么说他还没有去过北京,不是吗?

  24.感叹句要是具体情况而定。例如:

  What a good idea he has, hasn't he? 他的想法不错,是吗?

How long the river is, isn't it? 这条河真长,不是吗?

What fine weather, isn't it? 天气真好,是吧?

25.陈述部分是并列句,疑问部分要根据邻近分句而定。例如:

Mr. Smith had been to China for several times, and he should have hnown it, shouldn't he? 史密斯去中国好几次了,他应该了解中国,对吗?

26含有宾语从句的主从复合句,如果主句的主语是第一人称且谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等动词,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句,不符合此两条时与主句相一致。例如:

I don't think he is foolish, is he? 我认为他不傻,对吧?

We believe she can act better, can't she? 我们相信她会做的更好,对吧?

You don't think he is coming, don’t you? 你不认为他回来,对吗?

You supposed they were wrong, didn't you? 你当时就认为他们错了,对吧?

其它从句,疑问部分根据主句而定。例如:

  He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he? 他不是给我们作报告的那个人,对吧?

He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he? 他说他想去日本,是吗?

He was reading when you entered, wasn’t he? 你进去时他正在读书,是吗?

  

0

阅读 评论 收藏 禁止转载 喜欢 打印举报/Report
前一篇:英语的数词
后一篇:英语的介词
  • 评论加载中,请稍候...
发评论

    发评论

    以上网友发言只代表其个人观点,不代表新浪网的观点或立场。

    < 前一篇英语的数词
    后一篇 >英语的介词
      

    新浪BLOG意见反馈留言板 电话:4000520066 提示音后按1键(按当地市话标准计费) 欢迎批评指正

    新浪简介 | About Sina | 广告服务 | 联系我们 | 招聘信息 | 网站律师 | SINA English | 会员注册 | 产品答疑

    新浪公司 版权所有