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英语的倒装与前置

(2010-11-25 17:20:24)
标签:

宋体

倒装句

谓语

主语

英语的倒装与前置

英语中的倒装是指主语和谓语的位置颠倒,即:谓语放在主语的前面。主语和谓语完全颠倒过来的叫完全倒装;只把谓语的一部分提到句子前面的叫部分倒装;句子的其他部分放在句子前面,而主语和谓语正装的叫强调前置。

一、完全倒装。

一般只有一个动词作谓语,主语和谓语完全颠倒过来的的句子。

1、动词“have”和系动词“be”作谓语,在一般现在时态和一般过去时态的疑问句中,用完全倒装句。例如:

Have you a car of your own? 你自己有车吗?

Are they in the classroom? 他们在教室吗?

Had he work? 他当时有工作吗?

Were the students happy then? 当时那些学生高兴吗?

It ‘s really good, isn’t it? 今天天气真好,不是吗?

You had forty-five students in your class, hadn’t you? 你们班有45个学生,对吗?

2、在用“so”表示“也”,用“nor, neither, no more”表示“也不”的句子中,用完全倒装句。例如:

I have been teaching here for fifteen years. So has she. 我在这儿教了15年书,他也是。

Her brother wasn’t a manager; Nor/Neither was her sister. 她的哥哥没当过经理,她的姐姐也没有当过。

She doesn’t care much for her clothes. No more do I. 她不怎么在乎衣着,我也是一样。

3、在描述性句子中,主语是名词,谓语是不及物动词,状语前移时,用完全倒装句。例如:

Out rushed a mouse. 一只老鼠突然跑了出来。

Here comes the bus. 公共汽车来了。

In came a stranger. 突然进来一位陌生人。

Then followed a terrible noise. 接着是巨大的声音。

Now is your turn. 现在轮到你了。

Under the big tree sat an old soldier. 树下坐着一位老兵。

如果主语是代词不能倒装,请比较:

Out dashed the dog.

Out it dashed.                }那只狗突然冲了出去。

The dog/It suddenly dashed out.

4、存在句,用完全倒装句。例如:

There were small shops here. 这儿当时有很多店铺。

Here is a letter for you. 这儿有你的一封信。

There stands a tall tower on the top of the hill. 在那座山顶上矗立着一座高塔。

5、在省掉“if”的虚拟条件句中,如果谓语是系动词“were”,用完全倒装句。例如:

Were I you, I would not give it up. 如果我是你,我就不会放弃。

Were he to come tomorrow, what should we tell him? 假如他明天来,我们该怎么对他说?

6“Such”作表语前移时,用完全倒装句。例如:

Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person with great achievements. 爱因斯坦就是这样的人,一个简单朴素而有成绩卓著的人。

 Such are the jobs for you today. 今天你们的活就是这样。

7、为了衔接前文,可以用完全倒装句。例如:

There was a loudspeaker on the wall. From it came the boss’s voice. 墙上有一个播音器,从那个播音器里传出了老板的声音。

I have a patch of land, in which grow weeds. 我在河边有一块地,长满了杂草。

At the end of the bed was my stocking, now full of all kinds of presents and sweets.原来挂在床头的袜子里现在装满了各种各样的礼物和糖果。

8、直接引语,一般用完全倒装句。例如:

Hurry up!” said the teacher. 老师说:“快点!”

“Put on more clothes, said Father.We’ll go out for a picnic by the riverside.” 父亲说:“多穿点衣裳,我们今天去河边野餐。”

如果是代词作其主语或有间接宾语时,一般就不用倒装;直接宾语在后面不用倒装句。例如:

“What on earth do you want to do?” his mother (she) asked him.他妈妈她问他:“你到底要干什么?”

The teacher said,Hurry up!”

二、部分倒装。

行为动词的一般时态的疑问句加助动词,以及在复合谓语句中,只把谓语中的第一个动词提到句子前面的叫部分倒装。

1.行为动词作谓语,用加助动词“do, does, did”的方式构成一般疑问句。例如:

Do you like (to eat) bananas? 你喜欢吃香蕉吗?

Does he speak Japanese? 他会说日语吗?

Did the president speak at the meeting? 总统在会上发言了吗?

2、在进行时态、完成时态、将来时态、被动语态或谓语中含有情态动词的复合谓语句子中,只要把谓语中第一个动词(助动词或者情态动词)提到主语前,就构成了部分倒装句。在英语的问句中都用这种形式。例如: 

  Is the radio still working? 那个收音机还响吗?

Were they clearing up the streets when you arrived?你到达时他们正在清理街道吗?

Have they informed you of the matter? 那件事他们通知你们了吗?

Will you take part in the driving test tomorrow? 你参加明天的驾照考试吗?

Were they seen to enter the building? 有人见到他们进入那栋大楼了吗?

Can your little cousin drive a car? 你的小表弟会开车吗?

When was the conference held? 那个会议是什么时候举行的?

3、被“Only”修饰的句子成分前移时,用部分倒装句。例如:

Only then did he realize his mistake. 当时他就认识到了自己的错误。

Only in this way can we learn Russian well. 只有这样,我们才能学好俄语。

Only because the weather was bad did they put off the sailing game. 就是因为天气不好,他们才取消了那次帆船比赛。

被“Only”修饰的句子成分不前移时,不用倒装句。例如:

They put off the sailing game only because the weather was bad. 就是因为天气不好,他们才取消了那次帆船比赛。

4Never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, barely, little, in no time, in no case, by no means, not until, no sooner, etc.否定状语前移时,用部分倒装句。例如:

Seldom do I wear a suit. 我很少穿西服。

In no time did they leave for Canada. 他们立刻动身去了加拿大。

Little did we think that we would lose the game. 我们根本就没有想到会输掉比赛。

By no means am I satisfied with my present income. 我对目前的收入一点也不满意。

Hardly had they heard the news on the air when they became excited and set off fireworks and crackers. 他们一听到广播报道,就激动地燃放烟火爆竹。

Not until the rain stopped did we finish the work. 直到雨停,我们才干完。

No sooner had she got in than she announced the news. 他一进门就宣布了那条消息。

Scarcely had he gone into the room when/before the phone rang. 他一走进房间电话铃就响了。

Not only was everything he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship (was taken away from him). 不仅他的财产被剥夺,就连他的德国国籍也被开除了。

上述句子中的否定部分不前移时,不用倒装句。例如:

I seldom wear a suit. 我很少穿西服。

We have never touched the exhibits. 我们从未碰过那些展品。

5、在省去“if”的虚拟条件句中,如果有助动词“had”或情态动词“should”,用部分倒装句。例如:

Had he been ill, he would have phoned us ahead of time. 要是他当时生病了,他会提前打电话来的。

Should it be fine tomorrow, we would repair the road. 假如明天天晴,我们就修路。

6、表示祝愿的句子

May you have a good trip! 祝你旅途愉快!

May God be with you! 愿上帝与你同在!

7、在“so…that, such…that”句型中,如果前移“so…, such…”部分,用部分倒装句。例如:

So angry was she that she broke up all the cups on the table. 他非常生气,结果把桌上的所有杯子都打破了。

To such a degree does he love computer games that he buries himself in them all day. 他喜爱电脑游戏已经到了痴迷的成度。

上述句子不前移时就不用倒装。例如:

She was so angry that she broke up all the cups on the table. 他非常生气,结果把桌上的所有杯子都打破了。

He loves computer games to such a degree that he buries himself in them all day. 他喜爱电脑游戏已经到了痴迷的成度。

三、强调前置

下列句型在表示前置被强调的部分时,句子的主语和谓语不倒装。例如:

1、“as, though”引导的让步状语从句。

Child as he is, he knows much. 尽管他还是个孩子,他却懂得很多东西。

Hard though he tried, he did fail to pass the tests. 尽管他学习很努力,但是他还是有几门考试没及格。

2、感叹句

How beautiful the flowers are! 这些花真漂亮!
What a moving story it is!
这真是一个动人的故事!

3、“越……,越……。愈……,愈……。”句型

The sooner you come, the better it will be. 你越快越好。

The more time you spend on your studies, the more knowledge you will get. 你在学习上时间花的越多,你学到的知识也就会越多。

4、引导从句的连接词语。

Whomever he may be, I’ll criticize him. 不管他是谁,我都要批评他。

However great the difficulty may be, we will overcome it. 不管困难有多大,我们都要去克服它。

When and where we will hold the basketball match has not decided. 我们什么时候举行篮球赛还没有定下来。

They are going to visit the village, in front of which they put up a water tower last year. 他们打算去访问那个村子,去年他们在村前修了个水塔。

5、强调前移

把被强调的部分提到句首,主语和谓语正装。例如:

Very good lessons we have learned from this matter. 我们已经这件事情中吸取了很好的教训。

From outside, he brought in some wood. 从外面,他抱进了一些柴火。

All this they kept for themselves. 这一切他们都占为己有。

 

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