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状语从句小结

(2010-10-29 21:04:43)
标签:

宋体

条件状语从句

引导

情态动词

主句

状语从句小结

    由连词引导的从句在主句中作状语,修饰(谓语或非谓语)动词、形容词、副词或是整个句子,它可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等。状语从句是一较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要考点,因此,我们应引起重视。

    .时间状语从句

表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (the moment /minute/instant, ect.), by the time, the first time, each/every time, no sooner than, hardly /barely/scarcely/rarely, ect. when,等引导。e.g.

When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.

    He started as soon as he received the news.

Once you see him, you will never forget him.

注意: 否定前移倒装

No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.

Not until he returned did I go to bed.

Hardly had she arrived at the airport when she made a phone call to me.

    .原因状语从句

原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连词,语气不如because, in that 后置。e.g.

He is disappointed because he didn't get the position.

    As it is raining, I will not go out.

Now that you mention it, I do remember.

The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

    .地点状语从句

引导地点状语从句的连词是where wherever等。e.g.

Make a mark where you have a question.

Sit wherever you like.

    Where there is a will, there is a way.

    .目的状语从句

引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, for fear that, lest, in case(以防,以免)等。e.g.

Speak clearly, so that they may understand you.

    She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons.

    He left early in case he should miss the train.

    I daren’t tell you what he did, for fear/lest that he should be angry with me.

.结果状语从句

结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that (从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so that, such that等引导。 e.g.

 She was ill, so that she didn’t attend the meeting.

    He was so excited that he could not say a word.

    She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.

    .条件状语从句

    条件状语从句分真实条件句(有可能实现的事情),主要有if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, etc. 引导与虚拟条件句(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情),主要由if if only引导。注意:条件从句中的if 不能用whether替换。

    You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.

    So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months.

    You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don’t go too far away from the river bank.

If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her.

Were Tom to /Should Tom come tomorrowhe would see her.

If only he had known it then!

    .让步状语从句

让步状语从句可由although, though, while, as, even if /though, however, whatever, whether or, no matter who /when/ what/where 等引导。注意:as引导的让步状语从句时的位置。e.g.

Although/while/Though he is a child, he knows a lot.

    Child as/though he is, he knows a lot.

    Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I’ll never change my mind.

    .方式状语从句

方式状语从句常由as, as if (though), the way, rather than等引导。e.g.

You must do the exercise as I show you.

    He acted as if nothing had happened.

    .比较状语从句

    比较状语从句常用than, so (as) as, the more the more等引导。e.g.

    I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.

    He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.

    The busier he is, the happier he feels.

    .使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题

1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。e.g.

We’ll go outing if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

    I’ll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.

2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be ,就可省略从句中的“主语 + be”部分。e.g.

When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.

    If (you are) asked you may come in.

    If (it is) necessary I’ll explain to you again.

3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where为例,能引导多种从句。e.g.

You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)

    Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)

    I dont know where he came from.(宾语从句)

    Where he ha s gone is not known yet.(主语从句)

    This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

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