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抓住题干标点符号,提高答题命中率

(2010-10-29 20:58:40)
标签:

宋体

标点符号

破折号

逗号

答案

 

抓住题干标点符号,提高答题命中率

 

在英语中,不同的句式要有不同的标点符号与之搭配,用以表达不同的意思,因此,认真分析和准确理解题干中的标点符号是正确认定句式并迅速选出最佳答案的前提。本文就题干的句中符号和句末符号对答案的限制和影响归纳小结如下。

一.句中标点符号

    在一个题干中,句中标点符号主要有表示并列关系的分号“;”破折号“——”及表示主从关系的逗号“,”。例如:

1. NMET95. I don’t think Jim saw me; he___ into space.

A.         just stared  B. was just staring  C. has just stared  D. had just stared

分析:根据题干中的分号,可断定该题干为含有两个分句的并列句。意思是:我认为他没有看见我的原因是:他当时正在看天空。因此,后一分句应选过去进行时态,答案为B. was just staring。如果把分号改为逗号,后一分句就要改为从句,可以在逗号后加连词because/as/for, 等等,答案仍然是B. was just staring

2. NMET2000S. ____ some of this juice—— perhaps you will like it.

A. Trying  B. Try  C. To try  D. Having tried

分析:由题干中的破折号可知该题干也是含两个分句的并列句。意思是:尝尝这种橘子汁,也许你会喜欢的。在四个题支中,只有B. Try能独立成句(祈使句),其余三个题支都只能作状语。如果将破折号改成逗号,答案A. Trying为正确答案;如果将破折号改为分号或连词and, 答案仍然是B. Try。另外,此句若写成下列形式,也是正确的:

1). Try some of this juice; perhaps you will like it.

2). Try some of this juice and perhaps you will like it.

3). Trying some of this juice, you will like it.

4). If/When/After you try some of this juice, perhaps you will like it.

表示并列关系的句中标点符号,直接规定着其前后两个分句是各自独立完整的。而逗号通常表示主从关系,即:句子与其修饰语的关系。因此,在做这类题目时,关键是对句子的认定上。例如:

3. NMET96. ___ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.

A. Losing  B. Having lost  C. Lost   D. To lose

     分析:该题干中的逗号表明:逗号前的部分为状语,相当于一个状语从句,表示主从关系。根据句意,该句可以改写为:As he was lost in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. 意思是:他因陷入沉思,差点儿撞上了见面的汽车。在英语中,如果主从复合句同主语,从句一般可以改成非谓语形式(分词或动词不定式短语)。故本题答案为C. Lost

    4. NMET91. She heard a terrible noise,___ brought her heart into her mouth.

A.      it  B. which  C. this  D. that

分析:根据题干中的逗号和四个题支可判断,逗号后面的部分为从句,与其前面的部分构成主从关系(非限制性定语从句)。意思是:他听到一个可怕的声音,这使得他胆战心惊。定语从句缺主语,因此,B. which是正确答案。如果把逗号改成分号或破折号,构成并列句,那么,A. it  C. this  D. that都说得通。

逗号还可以用于分开句中插入成分或并列成分。例如:

5. MET93. The computer center, ____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school.

A.      open  B. opening  C. having opened  D. opened

分析:题干中两个逗号之间的部分应该为句中插入成分,这里可以看成是非限制性定语从句:“which was opened last year.,再英语中,如果关系词在定语从句中做主语,一般可以把定语从句该为分词短语,即:“(which was opened last year.”因此,本题答案为:D. opened

6.MET91. On Sunday afternoon, Mrs. Green went to the park ___ some bananas and visited her cousin.

A.      bought  B. buying  C. to buy  D. buy

分析:该句干中第一个逗号起着分隔时间状语的作用,第二个逗号把前两个谓语分开,表示三个谓语动作接续发生:先去市场,再买香蕉,最后去看堂兄。在英语中如果是一系列的并列成分连着使用,只要在最后两个成分之间加一个连词and/or,其前面的各成分之间也只要加逗号分开就可以了。如:She put on her coat, looked herself up and down in the mirror, did up her hair, turned about and ran downstairs, across the sitting room, out of the door and into the street. 所以本题答案应选A. bought

There are four boxes in the room, each of which weighs 50 kilograms.

There are four boxes in the room, each of them weighing 50 kilograms.

There are four boxes in the room, and each weighs 50 kilograms.

. 句末标点符号

句末标点符号也叫断句符号,表示一句话的结束。常用感叹号“!”、问号“?”和句号“.”。这些不同的断句符号要求有不同的句子结构,表示不同的意思,即:感叹句、疑问句或成述句。例如:

1. MET93. ____from Beijing to London!

A.      How long way it is  B. What a long way is it 

B.      How long way is it  D. What a long way it is

分析:由句末的感叹号判断本题干为感叹句,句子的主语和谓语应该正装。而四个题支中只有A. How long way it is D. What a long way it is 为主语谓语正装,通过比较不难发现正确答案应该为:D. What a long way it isfrom Beijing to London!)。如果把感叹号改为问号或句号,就可以写成下面两个句子,试比较:  

1). How far is it from Beijing to London?

2). It is a long way from Beijing to London.

2. ---- “It’s a fine day, isn’t it?”    ----“____?”

A.      Yes, it is  B. No, it isn’t  C. Yes, isn’t it  D. No, isn’t it

分析:根据提干中答语的问号,可先排除题支中的前两个答案,因为其主语和谓语都是正装语序。再从后两个答案中排除D. No, isn’t it,所以本题的正确答案应该为:C. Yes, isn’t it。其实,说英语国家的人见面时谈天气,是熟人之间的寒暄或谈正事之前的客套,往往明知顾问,无话抄话,并不表示询问,经常是重复前面的话或找话应酬一下就行了。如本题答案就是:“It’s a fine day, isn’t it?”。如果把句末符号改成句号,前面两个答案都是正确的。A. Yes, it is 是肯定回答;B. No, it isn’t是否定回答。

总之,要快速准确地选出最佳答案,我们就必须掌握一定的解题技巧和方法。抓住提干中的标点符号,认定句型后,理清解题思路,有针对性地对题支进行筛选,从而得出正确答案,这也是一种提高命中率省时可靠的解题方法。

选择填空练习:

1.     ___a reply, he decided to write again.

A.    Not receiving  B. Receiving 

B.     Not having received  D. He had not received

2.     ____down the radio——the baby is asleep in the next room.

A.    Turning  B. To turn  C. Turned  D. Turn

3.     ____more attention, the trees would have grown better.

A.      Given  B. To give  C. Giving  D. Having given

4. The turned out to be very good, ____we had not expected.

A.      it  B. what  C. that  D. which

5. The Olympic Games,____ in 766BC, did not include women players until 1912.

A.      first playing  B. to be first played 

B.      C. first played  D. to be first playing

6. When I got home I saw a message pinned to the door,___ “Sorry to miss you ; will call later.”

A. read  B. reads  C. to read  D. reading

7. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult.

A.      not make  B. not to make  C. not making  D. do not make

8. John plays football____, if not better than, David.

A. as well  B. as well as  C. so well  D. so well as

9. The secretary worked late into the night, ____ a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing

10. The murderer was brought in , with his hands____ behind his back.

A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied

11. Oh, John. ____ you gave me!

A.      How a pleasant surprise  B. How pleasant surprise 

C. What a pleasant surprise  D. What pleasant surprise 

12. If we work with a strong will, we can over any difficulty, ___ great it is. 

A. what  B. how  C. however  D. whatever

13. the result of the experiment was very good,____ we had not expected.

A.      when  B. that  C. which  D. what

14.All the preparations for the task___, and we are ready to start.

A.      have been completed  B. complete 

C. had been completed D. complete

15.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ____, of course, made the others unhappy.

A. who  B. which  C. this  D. what

16. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ____for the first time in years their team won the World Cup.

A.      that  B. while  C. which  D. when

17. European football is played in 80 countries, ____ it the most popular sports in the world.

A. making  B. makes  C. made  D. to make

18. ____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

A. However late is he   B. However he is late 

C. However is he late   D. However late he is

19. Would you like a cup of coffee____ shall we get down to business right away?

A. and  B. then  C. or  D. otherwise

20. The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks,____ that he had enjoyed his stay here.

A. having added  B. to add  C. adding  D. added

 

 

1---10:DDADC, DBBBD; 11---15:CCCAD, DADCC

(本文已刊登在《学英语》第134期教师版上)

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