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主语从句

(2010-10-29 16:03:25)
标签:

宋体

主语从句

谓语

疑问词

不及物动词

主语从句

一、主语从句的连接词

1that引导陈述句,只起连接作用,其本身无意义;

2whether引导一般问句、选择问句和反义问句,意思是“是否”;

3who, whom, which, whose, where, when, why, how疑问词引导特殊问句,在从句中担任句子成分。

主语从句在主从复合句子中担任主语,通常放在主句谓语之前,语序正装,其谓语一般用单数。例如:

That he finished writing the paper in such a short time surprised us all.他在这么短的时间内就写完了论文真叫我们惊奇。
  Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow is for you to decide.明天我们是否去郊游由你定。
  Who will be our headteacher hasn't been decided yet.谁来当我们的班主任还未定下来。
  Whom we are working for is a question of great importance.我们是在为谁工作是一个重要的问题。
  Whose mobile phone was lost is unknown.谁的手机丢了还不知道。
  What caused the accident is being looked into.造成事故的原因正在调查。
   
How we can stop pollution is a question worth attention.阻止污染的方法是一个值得注意的问题。

Whatever you did is right.你做的任何事都是正确的。
注意:如果谓语是系表结构且表语是复数名词,谓语用复数。例如:

What we need is more food.我们需要的是更多的食品。

What we need are good doctors我们需要的是更多的书籍。

二、形式主语“it

为了避免句子主语过长,英语中常把主语后置,原主语的位置用形式主语“It”代替,来平衡句子,汉语没有这种情况,应当引起注意。下面是最常见的用it 作形式主语的结构。例如:
 
 1 It is +名词+从句 常见的有:It is a pity(a shame, a fact, an honouer, a wonder, a good thing, a mystery, good news, no wonder, our duty,etc.)+that.例如:

It is a fact that you knocked me down.事实是你把我撞到了。
  It is an honor that I can share my life experience with you here. 常荣幸我能在这儿与诸位一起分享我的生活经历。
  It is common knowledge that you examine your car before driving.开车前先检查这是常识。
  2 It is +形容词+从句 常见的有:it is strange(natural, surprising, obvious, true, fortunate, good, wonderful, funny, rediculous, possible, likely, unusual, quite clear,etc.)+that

It is strange that he should refuse the job奇怪的是他居然拒绝了那份工作。
  It is important that she should tell us the truth.她说真话很重要。

It is necessary that my brothershouldbe sent to the factory.必须把我弟弟派到工厂去。

It is very likely that thire team will get ahead of ours.他们队很有可能超过我们队。

3It+不及物动词+从句  常见的有:it seems(happened, thus came about, turned out, suddenly struck me, occurred tome,etc.)+that

It occurred to him that he had forgotten to take his notebook with him.他突然想到没带笔记本。

It seems that your idea is more practical.乎你的想法更实际。
  It happened that I wasn’t there that day.碰巧那天我不在那儿。
  4 It +过去分词+从句  常见的有:It is said(reported, rumoured, announced, arranged, decided, stressed, expected, , etc.)+that

It is reported that Chairman Hu will visit America soon. 据报道胡主席不久将访问美国。
  It has been proved that the new international airport will come to use in May.已证实新国际机场建在五月投入使用。
    5
、可用whether和疑问词引导从句的有: It is doubtful(not known, not decided, not made clear, to be found out, being considered, a mystery, a question,  doesn’t matter, etc.)+that/wh-

It is still a question when we shall have our sportsmeeting. 我们什么时候开运动会还是个问题。

It is a mystery to me how it all happened.这事是怎么发生的还是个谜。

It hasn’t made clear when the new road is to be opened to traffic.新路什么时候通车还不清楚。

It is doubtful whether she will be able to come.她是否能来还不还说。

It was clear enough what she meant.她的意思还不太清楚。

It won’t make too much difference whether he will join us.他是否参加我们队不会太重要。

Has it been found out who set the record? 是谁破了纪录弄清楚了吗?

It doesn’t matter who will go insdead of me.谁代替我去不重要。

三、注意下列三种句子的变化

据说他已去了伦墩。

It is said that he has gone to London.

He is said to have gone to London

People say that he has gone to London.

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