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名词性从句概述

(2010-10-27 21:36:38)
标签:

宋体

名词性

宾语从句

主语从句

杂谈

 

名词性从句概述

在主从复合句中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句。名词性从句共分四类:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

一、名词性从句的连接词:

1That引导陈述性句子,只起连接作用,本身无意义,在从句中不担任句子成分。

2whetherif)引导含一般问句、选择问句、反义问句的句子,意思为:是否

3、疑问词作连接词引导含特殊问句的名词性从句,疑问词在从句中担任句子成分。who, whom, which, what, 在从句中作主语、宾语和表语;whose, which, what在从句中作定语;when, where, why, how在从句中作状语;例如:

That he was late again made his teacher angry.他又迟到了,这使老师很生气。

Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。

What he wants to tell us is not clear.     他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。

The teacher told us that Tom had left for America.老师告诉我们说汤姆去美国了。

Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。

I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。

The reason why he refused to go was that he hadn’t been informed.他拒绝去的理由是他没得到通知。

What has not yet been announced is where the English evening will be held. 还没有宣布的是英语晚会将在哪里举行,。

What we want to know is how he became a writer. 我们都想知道的是他是如何成为一名作家的。

We have no idea that Alice has given up the plan.我们不知道爱丽丝已经放弃了那项计划。

There is some doubt whether Peter is willing to go.比特是否愿意去我们有点怀疑。

Then aroes the question where we were to get the machines needed.接着我们到哪儿去搞到需要的机器的问题提了出来。

二、名词性从句中的语序

在名词性从句中语序正装。 试比较:

Have you read today’s newspaper?” he asked me.他问我:“你读过今天的报纸了吗?”

He asked me whether/if I had read today’s newspaper. 他问我是否读过今天的报纸。

How are you getting on with your studies?” Mr. Smith asks li hua.史密斯先生问李华:“你最近学习怎么样?”

Mr. Smith asks li hua how she is getting on with her studies.史密斯先生问李华她进来学习怎样。

三、名词性从句中的时态

如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的谓语时态要做相应变化,其它情况酌情处理。其变化情况与直接引语变成间接引语相同。例如:

She said to me , “I will come to pick Tom up at six pm.”她对我说:“我下午六点开车来接汤姆。”

She told me that she would go to pick Tom up at six pm.她告诉我说她下午六点开车去接汤姆。

She asks me “Will he come with you?”她问我:“他会和你一起来吗?”

She asks me whether/if he will come with me.她问我他是否会和我一起来。

Our geology teacher said that the earth moves aroud the sun.地理老师说地球围绕太阳转。 (表示真理的句子时态不变)

四、名词性从句中的语气

在表示说话人的态度和主观愿望时,与下列意思相关的名词性从句要用(should+do形式的虚拟语气,should还可以省去。常用的动词有:坚持要(insist),命令(order, command),建议(suggest, advise, recommend, propose),要求(require, request, demand, sak),宁愿(prefer, desire, urge, , 例如:

I suggested that she (should) not go to the meeting. 我建议她不要去开会。

That she (should) not go to the meeting is my suggestion.她不要去开会是我的建议。

My suggestion that she (should) not go to the meeting is reasonable.不要她去开会的建议是合理的。

My suggestion is that she (should) not go to the meeting.我的建议是她不要去开会。

I’d prefer my sister look after me in hospital.我更想要我姐姐到医院来照顾我。

It is suggested/desired/requested, etc. tha t…; It is impotant/necessary/natural,etc. that…; It is my advice/order/wish,etc.; It is a pity/shame/no wonder, etc. that…等句型中也用这种虚拟语气。例如:

It is desired that we get everything ready by tonight.我们想在今晚前把一切都准备好。

It is necessary that he be sent there at once.必须立刻派他去那儿。

It is a great pity that he should refuse our invitation. 非常遗憾他拒绝了我们的邀请。

wish, would rather, as if, etc.后的宾语从句要用变化的虚拟语气。例如:

I wish that he could come tomorrow.要是他明天能来就好了。

I wish that they had known it yesterday.但愿他们昨天就知道这件事。

I’d rather she were here with me now.我倒宁愿她现在就在这儿。

The nurse looks as if she were the chidren’s own mother.那位护士看上去就像是那些孩子的亲妈妈。

五、what, whatever, whoever, etc.引导的名词性从句

比较下列句子:

1)、我们现在急需的就是钱。

What we need at present is money.

The thing (that we need at present) is money.

2)、孩子要什么父母就给什么,这是不对的。

Parents shouldn’t give their children whatever they want.

Parents shouldn’t give their children anything (that they want).

3)、谁犯法谁就要受到惩罚。

Whoever breaks the law must be punished.

Any one (who breaks the law) must be punished.

4)、谁犯法了还不清楚。

Who broke the law is not clear.

The thing (who broke the law) is not clear.

5)、凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持

She will give whoever needs help a warm support.

She will give anyone (who needs help) a warm support.

六、主语从句的数

主语从句作主语,谓语一般用单数,但是表语如果是复数名词,谓语用复数。例如:

It is necessary that we enlarge our English vocabulary. 我们必须扩大词汇量。

What we need at present is more time.我们目前需要的是更多的时间。

What we need at present are more books.我们目前需要的是更多的图书。

七、名词性从句的化简

一般而言,名词性从句都可以用名词词组和非谓语形式化简。例如:

1)、他的缺课使老师很生气。

That he was absent from the class made his teacher angry.

His absence from the class made his teacher angry.

Being absent from the class made his teacher angry.

2)、我们都知道他迟到的原因。

We all know why he was late.

We all know the reason (why he was late).

We all know his reason for being late.

3)、好想要下雨了。

It seems as if it will rain.

It seems like rain.

It seems to eain.

八、介词后的宾语从句

介词后不能用thatif引导宾语从句,但可以用whether和疑问词引导宾语从句。例如:

 

She always think s of that she can work well. 他怎是想他能把工作干好。(错句)

She always think s of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。
   I
t will depend on that the weather is fine.这要看天气晴了。(错句)

It will depend on whether the weather is fine. 这要看天气是否放晴。

九、if 一般不能引导主语从句、表语从句、介词后的宾语从句,以及宾语从句后有or not。遇到这种情况都用whether引导。例如:

I wonder whether she will take the job or not.我想知道她是否会接受这份工作。

 

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