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从句作定语

(2010-10-17 11:16:12)
标签:

宋体

先行词

限制性定语从句

代词

副词

定语表示法(三)--从句作定语

三、从句作定语

作定语的句子就是定语从句,它必须有自己的独立完整的句子结构和明确的意思,由关系词连接。在定语从句中,关系词的选用既要看被它指代的先行词,又要看它在定语从句中所担任的句子成分来定。定语从句又可以分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两种,非限制性定语从句用逗号 “,”分开,关系词不用“that”

1、先行词和关系词

先行词是被定语从句修饰的中心词。

关系词分为关系代词、关系副词和关系形容词,它们在定语从句中的用法是相对固定的,如下表:

英语关系词功能表

关系词

主语/宾语

表语

定语

状语

 

        

Who

 

 

代词

that(限制性)

 

 

whom

 

 

 

代词

which

 

 

代词

事物

that

 

 

代词

人、事物

which(非限制性)

whose

 

 

 

形容词

人、事物

0f whom/which

where

 

 

 

副词

地点

介词+which

when

 

 

 

副词

时间

介词+which

why

 

 

 

副词

原因

for which

as

 

 

代词

人、事物

that (同一)

but

 

 

代词

人、事物

who not

2、  关系代词“who, whom”引导的定语从句

在由关系代词“who, whom”引导的定语从句中, “who”作主语,“whom”作宾语。在口语或非正式文体中,“whom”可以省去, 还可以用“who/that”代替, 但是先行词必须是或者寓言故事中的动物。例如:

The two new comers who had gone with us were Beth and Anna. 原来和我们一起去的是两位新来的,名叫贝丝和安娜。

So you found some women (whom/who/that) you could speak English with. 这样你就找到了几位可以和你会讲英语的妇女了。

3、关系代词“which”引导的定语从句

在由“which”引导的定语从句中,先行词是事、物“which”在定语从句中用作主语或宾语。在限制性定语从句中“which”可以用“that”替换,但在非限制性定语从句和介词后,指代事、物的关系词就只能用“which”不能用“that”。例如:

We had a rest under the big tree whichthatis the oldest in this area. 我们在一棵在这个地区最古老的大树下休息了一下。

The building, which stands across the street, is the one in which we put on the English play. 对面那栋大楼就是我们当时演英语短剧的那栋大楼。

I don’t like the way in which (that) he spoke to me. 我不喜欢你和我讲话的方式。

4、  关系代词“that”引导的定语从句

在由关系词“that”引导的限制性定语从句中,先行词可以是人、事、物“that”在定语从句中可用作主语或宾语。

注意:,关系代词一般只用“that”几种情况:1)、由不定代词“all, any, few, little, most, much, none, etc.”及合成不定代词“anything, everything, nothing, something, etc.”作先行词;2)、先行词被“all, any, every, little, many, much, no, the only, the very, etc.”词语和被序数词、形容词最高级修饰时;3)、先行词是(两个或两个以上)不同类的名词;先行词前的句中已经有了“who, which”, 关系代词一般只用“that”;但是它不能用于非限制性定语从句中。例如:

All that can be done has been done. 能做的事都做好了。

Is there anything else (that) I can do for you? 还有什么事情需要我做的吗?

This is the only reference book that is on biology.这是唯一的一本关于生物的参考书。

This is the very thing (that) I’m after. 这就是我在找的那件衣服。

He is the first foreigner (that) I have met today. 这是我今天见到的第一个外国人。

This is the best film (that) I have ever seen this year. 这是我今年看过的最好影片。

I will never forget the persons and things (that) I met at this school. 我将永远也忘不了在这个学校里遇到的人和事。

Who is the girl that was speaking to you just now? 刚才与你讲话的那个女孩是谁?

Which of the books (that) you borrowed from him is the best? 你从他那儿借来的书中哪一本最好?

5、关系副词“when, where, why”引导的定语从句

在由关系副词“when, where, why”引导的定语从句中,“when, where, why”都作状语,一般都可以改成:介词+关系代词“which”的形式,既:when = at/on/in/during…+ which; where = at/on/in/from/to…+ which; why = for +which. 例如:

I will never forget the day when (= on which) I joined the League. 我将永远也忘不了我入团的那一天。

This is the hospital where (= in which) she was born. 这就是她出生的那家医院。

Is that the reason why (= for which) he was late? 那就是他迟到的理由吗?

6、关系词“as”引导的定语从句

“as”作为关系词在限制性定语从句中,常用下列三个句型,“such +n+as…the same +n+as…as/so adj.+n.+as…”。例如:

Such people as (=People such as or Those whom) you have described have no devoted friends. 像你所描述的那种人是不会有真正的朋友的。

Such books as are on sale here are expensive. 在这儿买的这些书都很贵。

I have the same trouble as you (have). 我跟你的麻烦是一样的。

We spend the same time as you (spend) in doing the homework. 我们在做作业上花的时间跟你们在做作业上花的时间是相同的。

I have not learned so many English songs as you have (learned). 我学会的英语歌曲没有你学会的多。

7、关系形容词whose引导的定语从句

在关系形容词“whose”引导的定语从句中,“whose”用作定语,指代人、事、物,可以换成“of whom, of which”。例如:

They live in the house whose windows (= of which the windows or the windows of which) face south. 他们住在窗子向南开的那栋房子里。

Did you refer to the man whose car (= the car of whom or of whom the car) had been stolen? 你指的是汽车被人偷了的那位男同志吗?

8“But”作为关系词,一般要放在否定的句子后面,其本身也表示否定意思,相当于“who…not, that…not”,例如:

There was not a single person here but thought (=who did not think) you were right. 这儿没有一个人不认为你是对的。

There is no habit so bad but may (that may not) be torn away from. 只要有坚强的意志,没有什么坏习惯不能改掉。

9、关系词的活用

在限制性定语从句中,“that”可以替代关系代词“who, whom, which”。在口语或非正式英语中,作宾语的关系代词“whom, which, that”还可以省去, 也可以用主格形式代替宾格形式,但是介词前移时,只能用“whom”“which”。例如:

I know the man who/that is talking to John. 我认识正在跟约翰讲话的那个人。

I know the man (whom/who/that) John is talking to. 我认识约翰先生正在跟他讲话的那个人。

I know the man to whom Mr. John is talking. 我认识约翰正在跟他讲话的那个人。

The book which/that was written by Alice is very useful. 爱丽丝写的那本书很有用。

The book (which/that) Alice wrote is very useful. 爱丽丝写的那本书很有用。

10、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句不用逗号分开,它是中心词的必要修饰语;非限制性定语从句要用逗号与中心词分开,它是对中心词的补充说明。这两种从句都要放在中心词的后面,有时在意思上有区别。As引导非限制性定语从句还可以放在句首。例如:

The old man has a son who is studying abroad. 那老人有一个正在国外学习的儿子。(他可能不只一个儿子)

The old man has a son, who is studying abroad. 那老人有一个儿子,他正在国外学习。(他可能只有一个儿子)

This is a useful dictionary, which he always carries in his schoolbag. 这是一本很有用的词典,他总是把它带在书包里。

I gave her the dictionary that/which I bought in London. 我把在伦敦买的那本词典送给了她。

11as which引导非限制性定语从句的区别

as表示“正如、就像”之意,可以放在句首,也可以放在句末,指代主句,而witch表示“这一点,”之意,相当于“and this/that”只能放在句末,指代主句或主句的一部分。例如:

As we all know, the earth is round. 众所周知,地球是圆的。

Bamboo is hollow, as you can see. 正如你所看到的那样,竹子是空心的。

They have invited me to visit their country, which (= and this) is very kind of them. 他们邀请我访问他们的国家,这使我很感谢。(which指代整个主句)

She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. 他对孩子很耐心,他丈夫却很少这样。(which指代主句中的一部分——对孩子有耐心)

 

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