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两种补语的表示法

(2010-10-17 10:25:28)
标签:

宋体

补语

动词不定式

宾语

两种补语的表示法

  英语的补语是跟在及物动词后,补充说明宾语或主语的,因此,它可以分为两种: 宾语补语和主语补语.

 一、宾语补语

在主动语态的句子中,起补充说明宾语的句子成分为宾语补语,通常由单词和短语担任。例如:

We call her Lucy. 我们叫她露茜。

He has made his points very clear. 他已经把他的要点讲得很清楚了。

Do you smell something burning?你闻到有什么东西烧糊了吗?

When will you have your camera fixed? 你什么时候去修照相机。

The guard ordered them away. 卫兵命令他们离开。

I saw him enter the dining hall a moment ago. 刚才我还看到他进了饭厅。

The doctor advised Mary to have more exercise. 医生建议玛丽要多锻炼。

He proved himself worthy of confidence. 他证明了自己是值得信任的。

They wanted the foreign troops out of Iraq. 他们要求外国军队撤除伊拉克。

二、主语补语

把主动语态变成被动语态后,其宾语就变成了主语,所以,宾语补语就变成了主语补语,它在句子中起补充说明主语的作用。动词不定式用作主语补语时要带“to”。例如:

She is named Lucy. 她名叫露茜。

His points have been made very clear. 他的要点已经讲得很清楚了。

He was seen to enter the dining hall. 有人看到他进了饭厅。

They were heard singing a Russian folk song in the classroom. 当时有人听到他们在教室里唱俄罗斯民歌。

三、带补语的几类动词小结

1、用名词作补语的动词常用的有:appoint (指派), call, consider, elect, find, keep, leave, make, name, nominate (提名), think, etc.例如:

His father died, leaving him an orphan. 他父亲死了,使他成了孤儿。

The committee nominated me director. 委员会提名我当主任。

2.用动词不定式作补语的动词常用的有:ask, call on, command (命令), consider, encourage, expect, feel (sth. to be), get, invite, like, order, prefer, require, show, teach, want, warn, etc.例如:

I feel your composition to be better than mine. 我觉得你的作文比我的好。

The general often encourages his soldiers to fight bravely. 那位将军经常鼓励士兵勇敢战斗。

3、用动词不定式(省去“to”)作宾语补语的动词常用的有:feel (sth. do), have, hear, help, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, observe, see, watch, etc.例如:

I can help you (to) carry the box upstairs. 我可以帮你把这个盒子拿到楼上去。

I felt something crawl on my back just now. 我刚才觉得有什么东西在我背上爬。

4、用形容词、分词、副词作补语的动词常用的有:beat, believe, boil, cut, declare, drive, dye, feel, find, get, have, hold, imagine, keep, leave, let, like, make, open, paint, prove, pull, push, see, send, set, shout, smell, stop, suppose, think, turn, want, wish, etc. 例如:

Let him in, please. 请让他进来。

Loud noises can drive people mad. 很大的噪音能使人发狂。

You have to get them working at seven. 你必须叫他们七点种开始干活。

You ought to make yourself understood. 你应该把意思表达清楚。

5、用介词短语作宾语补语的动词常用的有:make, hear, consider, find, keep, regard, send, take, treat, etc.例如:

Make yourself at home. 别受拘束。

We consider her as a good girl. 我们都认为他是个好女孩。

四、有些介词,像with, without, about, of, to, for, etc. ,也可以带宾语补语。如:

I don’t know about the weather being so bad. 我不了解那儿的天气这么坏。

With the great weight taken off his mind, he felt satisfied. 了却了那装心事,他感到很满意。

We must wait for him to be back. 我们必须等他回来。

 

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