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强调状态和结果的动词特征

(2010-10-09 20:11:29)
标签:

宋体

动作

延续性动词

状态

语法手段

 

强调状态和结果的动词特征

一、在英语中强调状态的动词称之为状态动词,强调结果的动词称之为结果动词。状态动词和结果动词一般不用进行时态,常用一般时态来表示一般情况、情形及主语的状态、性质、特点等。状态动词属于延续性动词。如:

I think that you are right. 我认为你是正确的。

All of us love our country. 我们都爱国。

The shirt costs 120 dollars. 那件衬衫值120美元。

I still remember that she looked glad. 我还记得她当时看起来很高兴。

The bottle contains some whisky. 那个瓶子里有点威士忌。

试比较下列表示动作的动词与表示状态的动词在语意上的区别。动作具有强烈的时间感,必须带时间状语或通过某些语法手段明确其时间上的意义。如:

They go to school by bus every day. 他们每天骑自行车上学。

He ordered the soldiers to fire. 他命令士兵开火。

They are arguing over the matter in the meeting room. 他们正在会议室里辩论那件事。

The students will get back tomorrow. 学生们明天回来。

The man has been painting the house recently. 那个人最近一直在漆房子。

二、结果动词强调动作的结果,而不强调动作的本身。如:

We had been listening to the report the whole morning but heard nothing. 我们听了一个上午的报告,可是什么也没听到。

He looked around the room but found not a single book. 他在那间房子里到处找,可是连一本书也没有找到。

At the first sight I recognized the man because we had known each other for years. 我一眼就认出了那个人,因为我们已认识多年了。

三、待定动词  有些动词要在具体的语境中才能体现其意义特点。例如:

The book sells well. 这本书好卖。(状态动词)

The book was sold yesterday. 那本书昨天卖掉了。(动作动词)

They were selling the book when I arrived. 我到的时候,他们正在卖那本书。(动作动词)

The pen writes smoothly. 这支钢笔很好写。(状态动词)

He was writing a book. 他正在写一本书。(动作动词)

That book of hers was written in Shanghai in 1999. 那本书是她1999年在上海写的。(动作动词)

This kind of cloth washes well. 这种布料经洗。(状态动词)

Who will wash the clothes? 谁来洗衣服?(动作动词)

四、下列动词可以作状态动词用:

1belong to, consist, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, differ, equal, exist, fit, have, include, lack, measure, matter, need, own, possess, tend, weigh, fit, suit, owe, wear (穿戴,佩带), happen (碰巧),etc.

2、表示是,好像是,看///闻起来像等系动词,如:be, look, resemble, seem, sound, smell, taste, remain, stay, etc.

3、表示心理活动,心理状态等动词,如:admire, admit, allow, ban, believe, concern, consider (认为), desire, doubt, envy, expect, feel (感觉), forbid, guess (认为), hate, hope, imagine, judge, know, like, long (渴望), love, mean, mind, need, prefer, permit, propose, regard, request, require, respect, suggest (建议), suppose, think, trust, understand, want, wish, etc.

五、侧重结果的动词,如: achieve (达到,完成)complete, discover, find (找到), hear, feel (感觉到), forget, get (获得) master (掌握了), prove (被证明是), receive, recognize (认出), remember, see (看到), sentence (判出), show (表明), smell (闻到,嗅到), sound, taste (尝到), turn out (结果是), win (赢得), etc.

 

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