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掌握技巧(介绍美国维修业经验 译文初稿节选)

(2009-12-23 12:31:55)
标签:

汽车

分类: 汽车从业者技能进阶

                  Master Keys

                    掌握技巧

文/Sam Bell            译/  山东   谷朝峰

True mastery of our craft requires many skills. This first part of a two-part article highlights some of the key abilities and personal qualities that separate real masters from the rest of the pack.

对于我们修车行业真正的精通需要掌握多项技能,下面两部分文章的第一部分将着重介绍一些关键性的维修能力和和个性化维修特点,这些技能将真正的师傅区别于平常的修理人员。

In medi times, the guild system imposed a rigorous structure on the practice of most crafts. Apprentices labored for many years until they were deemed ready to learn the “trade secrets” and eventually become journeymen. Only one who had his journeyman’s papers was eligible to hire himself out to a shop, under the same or another master. After years as a journeyman, a select few were invited to submit their “master-works” as proof of their accumulated skill. Those who demonstrated sufficient skill became new masters and were then allowed to set up their own shops. Those who failed remained journeymen forever.

中世纪的行会制度实行了对大多数工艺操作的严格结构化管理。学徒需要苦干多年,直到他们被认为是准备学习的“业内机密”,才最终成为熟练工。只有取得熟练工的证书人员,才有资格应聘去另一家维修店,跟着相同或另一个师傅从事维修工作。在拥有几年的熟练帮工经历后,其中表现优异维修工人可被邀请提交他们的“绝活”以作为他们长年积累的技能的证明。对那些谁表现出足够的技能的维修人员将成为新的师傅,同样也被允许有资格可以建立自己的店铺。而对于很多不能证明这种能力的则永远继续做帮工。

Although the guild halls of yesteryear now echo only to the footsteps of the occasional tourist or history buff, the aura of their original conception of the master craftsman still shines brightly across the centuries.

虽然昔日的会馆大厅回声现在只留给偶尔的游客或历史爱好者,然而关于师傅技能的原始构想的光环依然照耀在几个世纪里。

 

Let me say at the outset that I have a great deal of respect for my fellow technicians. Together, we are the people who literally keep America (and the rest of the world) rolling. In this article I’ll explore the concept of the Master Technician, the current incarnation of the old master craftsman.

让我首先表示我对同胞技师的非常尊重。我们是真正地使美国(和世界其他地区)滚动的人。在本文中,我将探讨熟练技师的概念,一个行业老师傅当前版本的概念。

In our industry today, the Master designation is awarded by ASE based on our ability to pass a number of tests designed to measure our knowledge in a wide variety of repair and service areas such as brakes, climate control and electrical repair. Unfortunately, there are some very good test-takers who can’t fix cars, and a number of truly talented repair technicians who can’t pass tests.

今天在我们的行业,修车技师/技术能手称号ASE基于能力测试的情况授予的,ASE能力测试是通过一项旨在衡量我们的维修和服务领域的各种知识,如刹车,空调及电器修理的一系列测试,考验。不幸的是,有一些很好的测试型考生不能修复汽车,而有些真正有才华的维修技术人员不能通过测试。

To further muddy the waters, there are also a number of proprietary, or in-house, Master Technician designations awarded by OEMs to their dealership technicians, or by chains or mass-marketers to their employees. The criteria and requirements of each of these programs differ dramatically, so it’s little wonder that the general public has become largely indifferent to the title.

为了进一步搅浑水,原始设备制造商经销商把技术能手授予有一定数量的私人企业或机构内部技术人员,或由连锁机构或大规模营销商授予他们的员工。对于标准和要求,所设置的这些考评项目都有着显着不同,因此难怪公众在很大程度上已经对称号漠不关心了。

Yet there are some technicians who are clearly masters of our trade by any definition. These are the techs you call for help not just because they may have an answer to a particular problem based on their experience, but because you know they can help you get a handle on any problem, no matter if it’s uniquely idiosyncratic to the car in your bay.

Let’s find out what’s inside the Skills toolbox? To do so, we need to start not with the master’s skill set, but with the journeyman’s.

然而,有一些技师毫无疑问地是我们这个行业的真正的专家。在你需要帮助的时候,不只是因为他们根据他们的维修经验可能回答特定问题,而且是因为你知道他们可以帮助你处理任何问题,无论是你停在户内或户外的车出现任何独特特质的故障。

让我们找出在技能工具箱内有什么?为此,我们需要不从师傅的技能开始,而是从熟练工的修理包开始。

 

Basic Tool Use

基本工具使用

I think we can all agree on some fundamental skills that every journeyman must develop before he can hope to become a master in his own right:

Use the right size tool. This seems obvious, but how do you account for the rounded head on that drain plug? And to save your knuckles, use the correct extensions on those tools.

我认为,我们都同意每一个熟练工在希望成为拥有自主权力的师傅之前,要开发一些基本技能:使用大小合适的工具。这似乎是显而易见的,不然你如何为油底壳螺栓因操作变为圆形头负责任?为保护您的工具的连接关节,还要对这些工具使用正确的连接线。

 

Use specialty tools such as distributor wrenches, flex sockets, wobbles, “carb” tool drivers, angled pliers, battery terminal “unpliers” (spreaders and reshapers), levers and prybars, plus correct screwdriver bits, including distinguishing among Pozidriv, JIS and Phillips.

使用专用工具,例如化油器扳手,柔性插座,摇晃器,“汽化器”工具螺丝刀,有角度的钳具,电池终端“unpliers”(吊具和纠正器),杠杆和撬棍,加上正确的螺丝刀钻头置,包括有Pozidriv,JIS和菲利普斯区分。

 

Use heat as required, in various degrees, from heat guns, soldering irons, torches and welders. Heat-blocking refractory clays and metal heat shields extend the range of suitable applications safely.

根据不同的使用温度需要使用加热工具,从热枪,烙铁,打火机和焊工。用热阻断耐火粘土和金属隔热层以扩大安全合适的应用范围。

Use holders and turners appropriately. While you may be able to get away with wedging your breaker bar against the cradle and cranking the engine over to remove the crank pulley bolt, you know it’s not the best practice. And how did you plan to retorque it?

使用适当的固定器和转矩器。尽管你可能够逃脱为当转动发动机曲柄时产生的摇动而楔入断裂的木棒,由此可顺利地拆下曲轴皮带轮螺栓,也许你知道这不是最好的做法。你又如何打算施加增加扭矩呢?

 

Speaking of torque, true mastery requires us to learn to apply it correctly and in the correct amount. I can practically do chin-ups with a long wrench on most drain plugs before they’ll turn. The vast majority of manufacturers specify spark plug torques in the range of 14 to 20 ft.-lbs., which must be reduced by as much as one-third if you’re using antiseize compound.

 

谈及扭矩,真正的掌握,要求我们必须学会正确的使用和正确的扭矩数。对大多数的油底壳放油螺栓我能用长的扳手做几次引体向上式操作直至螺栓开始转动。在绝大多数的厂商指定的火花塞的扭矩范围为14至20英尺磅。如果您使用防粘化合物,必须减少多达三分之一。

No manufacturer advises “then add an extra tug at the end, just to be sure the gasket is properly seated.” Overtorquing tends to damage female threads, whether in oil pans or cylinder heads, while undertorquing carries the obvious risk of a fastener backing off. You can refine your “calibrated elbow” by using a properly maintained torque wrench a few times a month for common jobs like tightening that drain plug.

没有任何制造商会建议“只是要确定垫片正确入座,接着在维修过程最后处加上一个额外的力。”过量的力矩往往损害螺纹,无论是油底壳还是气缸盖。同时不足的力矩将带来紧固件回退的风险。通过类以紧固油底壳螺栓这样的日常工作,一个月多次应用合适的维修扳手您可以优化您的“校准肘”的精确度。

Use pullers and presses as required, and forming tools and benders where appropriate. (You’ll find a bit more on these tools in the “Master of Tubing” sidebar that starts on page 50.) Use drills, taps and dies when dealing with broken bolts and damaged threads.

使用张力辊和压力机,在适当的时候可形成工具和弯曲设置。(你会发现第50页开始的“维修油管“工具边栏中有更多的信息条。);使用钻头,轻拍击及螺丝模对付破裂的螺栓和破坏的螺纹。

 

Basic Measuring Skills

基本的测量技巧

My college days included a long stint as a lab assistant in a course on the theory of measurement. We taught students how to make their own vernier calipers, triple-beam balances and really strong coffee.

我的大学时代,包括作为测量理论课程的实验室助理而做过一定期限的实践工作。我们教导学生如何使用自己的游标卡尺,三束平衡和如何做真正浓咖啡。

 

Tape measures, micrometers and calipers, thread gauges, depth gauges and protractors are among the tools every technician should know how (and when!) to use. Also on the essentials list are pressure gauges, including vacuum and compression gauges, plus tire, a/c and fuel gauges. I tell my students calling with driveability concerns that they must supply vacuum readings and fuel pressure and volume results or they cannot expect any help from me. 

带尺,千分尺和卡尺,螺纹量规,深度尺和量角器都是必备工具之中的,车间的每一个技术人员应该知道如何(以及何时!)使用。在重要工具清单上也有压力测量设备,包括真空和压力量具,加上胎压,A / C空调压力和燃油压力表。我告诉我的学生对操控性的关注,他们必须提供真空读数和燃料的压力和喷射量的检测结果,否则他们不能指望从我这里任何帮助。 

Use your DVOMs and amp clamps. These provide the electrical troubleshooting analogues of the pressure and flow readings needed for driveability analysis.

An oscilloscope adds time as a dimension. This allows the measurement of speed, frequency, duration and duty cycle, all valuable data points for analyzing a variety of electrical woes.

Infrared thermo probes and contact pyrometers add temperature to the mix. Digital infrared thermal imagers are dropping in price, and may be affordable for many shops in the near future.

使用您的DVOMs和放大器夹。这些提供了用于电气故障检修的模拟值的压力和驾驶性能分析所需的数据流读数。一个示波器增加了一个层面的时间。这允许对速度,频率,持续时间和工作周期以及对所有的电器分析各种灾难所需的宝贵数据点进行测量。红外热探测器和常接触型高温计可进行温度的混合处理。数码红外热成像仪的价格正在下降,并可能在不久的将来在许多商店会更便宜。

 

Basic Inspection Skills

基本的检查技巧

I’m often surprised at how many techs don’t have a professional quality flashlight (or five of them!). A high-quality UV light source with contrast-enhancing glasses allows you to precisely locate fluid or refrigerant leaks.

我经常感到惊讶,有多少技工没有专业素质手电筒(或其中5种!)。高品质的UV紫外光源与对比增强眼镜可以让您精确定位液体或制冷剂泄漏。

 

With a borescope or, preferably, a video stick like my Pro-Vision camera, you can see close up and from many angles. Both of these devices have come down in price over the last several years. Mirrors can be used not only to see the rear of some components, but also to illuminate them via reflection.

用管路镜(内窥镜)或强烈推荐的视频棒如我的PRO-Vision摄像头,你可以从多角度看到放大近影。这两款器件的价格已下降到在过去的数年。镜子可以用来不仅看到某些组件后,还通过反射照亮他们。

 

Use your fingers and nails, too. Amazingly, the ridges of your fingerprints enable you to discern surface details on the order of a few microns. With practice, you can learn to feel the print on a page of this magazine, in spite of your calluses!

用你的手指和指甲也可成为工具。令人惊讶的是,你的指纹脊使您可以区分有少数微米表面细节。通过练习,不管你手上的老茧,你可以学会感觉到这本杂志的页上印刷体!

 

Stethoscopes and other hearing devices can help you home in on the correct diagnosis sooner. There are even some smart ultrasonic ears that extend your hearing well into the dog range, enabling you to pinpoint small vacuum leaks, predict bearing failures, even potentially locate dirty injectors.

听诊器和其他听力设备可以帮助您在正确的诊断。甚至有一些聪明的超声波耳朵,可扩展到您的听力范围内直至达到狗的听觉范围,使您能够查明小型真空泄漏,预测轴承失效,甚至潜在地定位脏的喷油器。

 

Use your nose. I can usually detect hydrocarbons in concentrations well below 5 ppm. I use my electronic nose to sniff out a/c leaks. And, of course, a four- or, preferably, five-gas analyzer is a must for anyone doing serious emissions work.

Road testing can be considered an inspection skill in itself. You can learn a lot about a vehicle’s symptoms out on the road.

使用你的鼻子。我通常可以检测浓度远远低于百万分之五碳氢化合物。我用我的电子鼻子嗅出空调致冷剂泄漏。,当然,四气体或最好五气体分析仪,是任何人认真做好排放量测试工作的必需品。路测试可以被认为是自主型的检验技术。在道路上您可以充分了解车辆的当前表现的症状。

 

Basic Research Skills        

基本的研究技巧

Today’s technician must know how to use a good repair database, whether it be MOTOR/ALLDATA, iATN or Identifix. There are also manufacturer-specific sites, both official and unofficial, of varying levels of quality and utility.

今天的技术人员必须知道如何使用一个很好的修复数据库,无论是使用MOTOR/ ALLDATA,iATN或Identifix网站。也有其它制造商特定的网站,包括官方和非官方的不同程度的质量和效用水平。

 

Guided diagnostics and testing regimens show up in a variety of information resources. These may vary in form from a troubleshooting flowchart to a live phone call with one of the many paid services. Many aftermarket parts suppliers make free hotline help available to repair technicians. Call your jobber for details and access. And, of course, printed manuals still have their place in the shop.

故障引导诊断和治疗方案在多种多样的信息资源中也现身了。这些可能会有所不同形式,从故障的流程图到现场电话,可能还是有偿服务之一。许多供应商售后零部供应商提供免费热线和帮助。你可以给你的零件供应商就细节和渠道打电话,当然,打印出的技术手册,仍然有其在店内占有一席之地。

 

Basic Safety Practices        

基本的安全操作

Personal protection and job safety are everyone’s responsibility, but remember that no one cares more about your safety than you do. Safety glasses, ear protection, welding gloves, hats and aprons are not just for show. Many techs neglect to use proper respirators; others fail to scrupulously vent vehicle exhaust to the outside on a consistent basis.

个人防护,职业安全是每个人的责任,但要记住,没有人关心你的安全比你多。安全眼镜,耳朵保护,焊接手套,帽子和围裙不是作秀。许多技术员忽视用正确的人工呼吸,有的不能将汽车排放物排向工作区外面。

 

Basic safety practices include appropriate battery disconnections, air bag disarming procedures, even proper jacking and lifting. Every professional knows better than to get under a vehicle supported only by a jack, right? Equally worth mentioning: spark avoidance and suppression, proper battery handling, fluid drain and exchange procedures, up-to-date brake service procedures, proper fuel-handling precautions and procedures, etc.

基本安全守则包括适当的电池断开,气囊解除程序,甚或适当的支顶和举升。每一个专业的人得到的并不仅为:站在车辆下面操作不能只能由一个千斤顶来支撑,对不对?同样值得一提:火花避免和制止,妥善处理电池,油液排放和交换程序,更新的制动服务程序,妥善燃料防范和处理程序等

 

Details Matter

相关细节

Before I close, I’d like to share a short story. Turns out, real techs do read the directions. I recently worked on a car that had been to another shop, where its brake lines had been replaced. Up on my rack, it was evident that the tech at that shop had made up the lines from bulk stock. Nothing wrong with that, per se, but a small deviation from the detailed instructions that were undoubtedly glued to the lid of his flaring tool’s box had resulted in a dangerous leak (see the sidebar “Master of Tubing” on page 50 for the nitty-gritty).

在结束之前,我想分享一个小故事。事实证明,真正的技术也需读操作说明。我最近所修的一部汽车曾经到另一个汽车修理店,在那里它的制动油管进行了更换。我的机架上,很明显是在该店技工从大量的库存中制作了刹车管路。本质上,那样并没有什么,但一个细小的违反细节操作手册的细节:毫不疑问的将翻边工具盒的盖子粘接在一起,这说明了已导致一个危险的泄漏,请参阅侧栏“上的油管第50页”的基本事实)。

 

My point here is not those particulars, important as they are, but rather that attention to detail is of paramount importance. If you do certain jobs often enough, you may not need to reread the directions each time. But if, for example, you use your flaring tool only a couple of times a year, you should refresh your recollection before each use. The previous tech made at least one additional mistake: He failed to do a final check of his work before releasing the car to the customer. The path toward mastery begins and ends in humility, hopefully thereby avoiding humiliation.

我的观点是:在这里不仅是因为这些细节是重要的,而是对细节的关注是至关重要的。如果你经常性做的某些工作,你可能不需要每次重读操作说明。但是,如果,例如,您使用您的翻边工具仅一年几次,你应该在每次使用前,刷新你的记忆。先前的技能至少带来一个额外的错误:他没有在将车交到客户手中以前做最后检查。对精通掌握路径从谦卑和希望开始和结束,从而避免羞辱。

 

The basic skills set out in this article are just a few of the high points. You could probably write a list that would fill this entire issue and it would still be incomplete. Next time (December), we’ll come back to reexamine the remaining points of inquiry I brought up earlier, and to take a look at what’s in the master’s Skills toolbox. See you then.

本文所提及的基本技能,仅仅是许多观点中的一部分。即使你也许可以写一张清单,将填补整个问题,而且它仍然是不完整的。下一次(12月),我们会回来重新审视调查刚才我提到了其余各点,并看看破在师傅的技能工具箱有何宝物。到时候见。

 掌握技巧(介绍美国维修业经验 <wbr>译文初稿节选)

下面是无数的“特殊”手工具的一些小样本,需要用来打造一个修理工的工具箱。并不是如显示的,当然是价值数千美元的用于日常的基础工具。再就是有相对于具体专门工作而言的定制化的工具。

 

掌握技巧(介绍美国维修业经验 <wbr>译文初稿节选)

顾客们喜欢通过黑光和紫外线荧光染色的泄漏检测的C。S。I 呈像。一定要确信,在开始用灯光在四周闪亮照明的时候一定要给他们紫外线保护加强荧光眼镜。

 掌握技巧(介绍美国维修业经验 <wbr>译文初稿节选)

能否让眼适合看到紧密的场所?管道镜和可视检测棒能帮助做到。这是US制造的视觉镜,甚至有一个为一个在的显示设备准备的RCA 视频输出插口,费用比你想象的要低。

掌握技巧(介绍美国维修业经验 <wbr>译文初稿节选)

燃油压力和喷油量是非常重要的参数,压力表侧面的两个附加的量具为汽车真空表和排气背压表,仓促地对实现了标准测量的分摊。

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