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高二英语下册11-12复习笔记

(2007-08-03 17:56:28)
分类: 英语地带
 

高二英语下册11-12复习笔记

                   第一节(Units 11---12  SBII(B))

I. 重点词组

  1. set foot (in)                  到达;进入;踏上                       

  2. have an effect on         对……产生作用;对……有效果

  3. rely on                         依靠;信赖;指望

  4. come to life                 (变得)活跃;苏醒过来

  5. put forward                 提出;建议;推荐

  6. aim (sth.) at                旨在;瞄准

  7. set out                        出发;上路

      set out to do sth.        开始做某事

  8. in public                     公开地,公然

  9. throw light upon         阐明某事;使某事非常清楚

  10. cut up                      切碎;剪碎

11. deal with                      处理

  12. be ready to                 准备好做某事

  13. learn from                   向……学习

  14. come true                   实现

  15. grasp / catch the opportunities 抓住机遇

  16. in store                       贮藏着;准备着;必将发生;

                                           就要到来

  17. make a living             谋生

  18. applied science         应用科学

  19. remind sb. of sth.       提醒某人想起某事

  20. lay the foundation      奠定基础

21. in his own time            在他的时代

  22. be dressed in              穿着

  23. be used for                  被用于

  24. eight feet in height      高八英尺

  25. slow down my speed    减缓了我的速度

  26. be filled with                 装满了;充满了

  27. put forward a plan        提出一个计划

II. 常见句型

1.  It is likely that many of them will be born in northwestern Beijing.

2.  Does these achievements have anything in common? If so, what?

3.  Zhongguancun made it possible for him to follow his dreams.

4.  Zhongguancun has had a positive effect on business as well  as science.

5.  One of the mottos for the park makes it clear that science and business can and must work together to build the future.

6.  Not all the new companies can succeed.

7.  As Yufang puts it:“……”

8.  The best thing about failure is that you learn every time you fail.

9.  It is believed to be caused by a sea monster.

10.  It turned out to be a submarine.

III. 主要语法

学习构词法(参见SBIIB, p.6 和p.14 Word Formation 及p.8 p.16 Checkpoint 11 )

IV. 系统语法

状语从句 (一)

状语从句在句子中像副词一样当状语,故又称为副词性从句。状语从句有以下几种:

1)  时间状语从句。其连词有when, while, as, before, after, till, until, since, as soon as 等。此外,once (一旦;一……就……); no sooner …than…; hardly…when…; the moment; the instant; the minute; every time 等也可以引导时间状语从句。如:

Once mother went into the gate, she put the basket onto the ground. 母亲一走进大门,就把篮子放在地上。

No sooner had he got home than it began to rain. 他一到家,天就下起雨来。

Hardly had he lain down when he fell asleep. 他一躺下就睡着了。

The moment he saw her, he began to like her.  他一见到她,就很喜欢她。

Every time I catch a cold, I have pain in my back. 每回伤风我背就痛。

注意:一部分时间状语从句要用现在时表示将来。如:

I’ll let you know when he comes. 他来时我会告诉你。

2)  地点状语从句。其连词有where。如:

Make a mark where you have any questions. 在有问题的地方做个记号。

3)  原因状语从句。其连词有because, since, as, now that (既然) 等。如:

Now that we are all here, let’s try and reach a decision. 既然大家都来了,我们就设法做出一个决定吧。

4)  目的状语从句。其连词有so that, in order that, in case (以防) 等。如:

Let’s take the front seat so that we may see more clearly. 让我们坐前面,以便我们可以看清楚一些。

You’d better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多带点衣服,以防天气会冷。

5.结果状语从句。其连词有so…that, such…that,so that等。如:

   He didn’t plan his time well so that he didn’t finish the work in time. 他没有把时间计划好,结果他没按时完成这项工作。

  She was so tired that she couldn’t work any longer. 她太累以致无法再工作下去了。

  We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 我们走得如此匆忙以致忘了锁门。

2.  活用训练

(1)I wrote it down ________ I should forget it.

     A. in case    B. in case of     C. as if     D. in order that

  (2) They did not stop fighting ________ there was no enemy left.

   A. after   B. until    C. since     D. when

  (3) Prepare thoroughly _______ you start the work.

   A. before      B. as soon as     C. why      D. while

  (4) I passed my exam but it was a long time _______ my friends about it.

   A. before I told            B. after I told

   C. when I was telling       D. that I didn’t tell

  (5) ______everybody is here, let’s set off.

   A. Because      B. Since       C. After       D. For

V. 重点词汇  

1. 词语搭配

 (1) hesitate  v. 犹豫,踌躇,其后接不定式,或介词about, over, in, between等短语,或从句。其名词为hesitation。

 (2) perfect  adj. 完美的,理想的,绝对的。不用very修饰(可用quite, almost),不用于比较级或最高级。可用作动词,表示“使完美”

(3) arrange  vt.安排,整理,后可接名词,不定式或从句

(4) rely  vi. 依靠,信赖,指望,期待。与on或upon连用,后接名词,或不定式作宾补,或接动名词及其复合结构。

(5) locate  vt. 查出, 找出……准确位置;把……放在(位置),位于。表示“位于……”这一意思时,多用被动语态。

 (6) announce  vt. 宣布、公布,(含有预先通知的意思。)

 “向……宣布”要用announce to sb. sth. 。不能说announce sb. sth.

2.  用法辨异 

(1) “within+段时间”表示“在……(时间)内”,比in正式,侧重于在该时间内的任何时候,可以指现在、过去和将来。

 “in+段时间”既可表示“在……(时间)以内”,也可表示“在……(时间)之后”,多用于将来时的句子里。

若谓语是终止性动词, “in+段时间” 则表示“在……(时间)之后”。

(2)grasp与seize

 grasp表示“紧抓”,尤指用手指、爪子紧抓,抓牢

 seize表示“突然用力握紧,抓紧”,含有“夺过去”的意味,可引申为“抓住机遇”“夺取”等意思。

(3) at a distance (of)在……远的地方(注意用不定冠词)。

in the distance 在(可以看见的)远处

 keep…at a distance 保持一定距离,不亲密。

keep one’s distance from离……远,  对……冷淡。

(4)distant与far辨析

   distant  表示 “时间、空间上的远隔的”, “遥远的”有难于达到或接触的含义,可作定语或表语。作表语时,可单独使用,也可在前面加表示确切距离的修饰语。

 far 用作表语时多用于疑问句或否定句,在肯定句中常用 far away, far off, a long way  等。far 之前不能有确切的距离。

  不可说:It’s two miles far.

  而应该说:It’s two miles away/two miles distant from here.

3. 常用句型  

(1) Whatever great achievements the future may have in store for China, it is likely that many of them will be born in northwestern Beijing.         无论中国将来会有什么样的伟大成就,其中许多很有可能就诞生在北京的西北部。

1) whatever引导让步状语从句,whatever是引导词,相当于no matter what

2) in store 表示“就要发生”。 还可表示“储存”的意思

(2)Zhongguancun made it possible for him to follow his dreams and help the country he loves.   中关村使他有可能实现自己的梦想,同时为他所热爱的国家做出自己的贡献。

句中的possible是宾语补足语,it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是不定式短语to follow his dreams and help the country he loves.

在find, think, make, consider, feel等动词之后,接不定式作宾语时,若不定式带有自己的补语,我们常用it代表不定式,而将不定式放到补语之后。

(3) Not all the new companies can succeed, but the spirit and creativity they represent are more important than money.

 并非所有的公司都获得了成功,但是它们所代表的精神与创造性比金钱更重要。

 not与all连用,表示部分否定,意为“并非所有的……都……”。all…not同样是部分否定,其完全否定用none。

not both 相当于both… not 并非两者都。 其完全否定用neither(两者都不),

every, each与not连用,也含有部分否定。其完全否定使用none/no one/nobody/nothing

(4) China has long been a leader in the field of genetic research aimed at improving agriculture.

 在针对改善农业的基因研究领域,中国长期处于领先位置。

aim at表示“针对”“以……为目的”。

4. 活用训练

Ⅰ.单项填空

(1). —I saw a car accident on my way home.

—It’s no ______ that you’re late.

A. wonder    B. matter    C. doubt    D. problem

(2). Great attention should be paid _____ your homework while I am away.

A. to do     B. doing   C. to doing   D. do

(3). If you practise hard, you will _____ a good writer.

A. develop    B. pioneer   C. turn out to be   D. bring up

(4). All she needed to ______ her happiness was a baby.

A. finish    B. receive    C. add    D. complete

(5). —The meeting has begun and _____he will come.

—Of course, he is sure to come. He’ll speak at the meeting.

A. I believe   B. I hope  C. I think    D. I doubt if

(6). I heard to my _____ that he had failed.

A. surprising    B. amazing    C. amazed   D. surprise

(7). The rescue team spared no _____ in search of the missing climbers from the great university but ended in vain.

A. pains    B. force    C. efforts    D. labour

(8). We can’t get rid of war unless we can get rid of the _____ of war.

A. reason    B. cause    C. effect    D. excuse

(9). In winter the weather in South China is ______ and pleasant.

A. gentle    B. soft    C. kind    D. mild

(10). The ship set out on a long _____.

A. trip    B. travel    C. journey    D. voyage

5. 例题点评

(1). The English play _______ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success.

A. for which                            B. at which

C. in which                             D. on which

答案C。这是关系代词作介词宾语的定语从句,可还原成my students acted in the play。

(2). Roses need special care _____ they can live through winter.

A. because                              B. so that

C. even if                               D. as

答案B。so that:为的是,以便。 引导目的状语从句。

(3). —— Isn' t that Ann's husband over there?

—— No, it _______ be him. I'm sure he doesn't wear glasses.

A. can't                                  B. must not

C. won't                                  D. may not

答案A。can’t 表示否定判断。译为:不会是

(4). Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ___ she was getting.

A. heavier                                B. heavy  

C. the heavier                              D. the heaviest

答案A。much 修饰形容词比较级heavier。表示:看比过去重了多少。

(5). I don't mind picking up your things from the store. _______ , the walk will do me good.

A. Sooner or later                       B. Still

C. In time                             D. Besides

答案D。Besides 表示陈述一条理由后还有另一条理由。

(以上5题均选自04年全国高考题。)

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