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How To Take Care Of Bunions

(2015-06-09 05:51:42)
Overview
Bunions Hard Skin A hallux abducto valgus deformity, commonly called a bunion, is a deformity characterized by medial deviation of the great toe, often erroneously described as an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the head of the big toe. There is disagreement among medical professionals about the cause of bunions; some see them as primarily caused by the long-term use of shoes, particularly tight-fitting shoes with pointed toes, while others believe that the problem stems from genetic factors that are exacerbated by shoe use. Bunions occur when pressure is applied to the side of the big toe (hallux) forcing it inwards towards, and sometimes under or over, the other toes (angulation). As pressure is applied, the tissues surrounding the joint may become swollen and tender. In a survey of people from cultures that do not wear shoes, no cases of bunions were found, lending credence to the hypothesis that bunions are caused by ill-fitting shoes. The bump itself is partly due to the swollen bursal sac or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the metatarsophalangeal joint. The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of the first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways to stick out at its top.

Causes
Essentially, bunions are caused by a disruption of the normal interworking of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons that comprise your feet, often from wearing shoes that squeeze the toes or place too much weight-bearing stress on them. However, it should be pointed out that other causes or factors in the development of bunions can include flat feet or low arches in the feet, some forms of arthritis, problems with foot mechanics, foot injuries and neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy. Arthritis in the MTP joint, for example, can degrade the cartilage that protects it, and other problems may cause ligaments to become loose. Pronation, walking in a way that your foot rolls inwards, increases your risk for developing bunions.

Symptoms
Red, thickened skin along the inside edge of the big toe. A bony bump at this site. Pain over the joint, which pressure from shoes makes worse. Big toe turned toward the other toes and may cross over the second toe.

Diagnosis
Although bunions are usually obvious from the pain and unusual shape of the toe, further investigation is often advisable. Your doctor will usually send you for X-rays to determine the extent of the deformity. Blood tests may be advised to see if some type of arthritis could be causing the pain. Based on this evaluation, your doctor can determine whether you need orthopaedic shoes, medication, surgery or other treatment.

Non Surgical Treatment
The choice of treatment for a bunion lies between non-operative (conservative) and operative treatment. Conservative treatment for a bunion means either wearing wider fitting shoes or shoes with softer leather or using some form of a spacer between the big toe and 2nd toe (or alternatively some form of splint to keep the great toe away from the 2nd toe). The spacers or splintage may apparently straighten the bunion but they make no difference to the width of the foot, and the splaying of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals which occur with a bunion deformity. Therefore this type of treatment will not improve the main pain in a bunion which occurs due to the width of the forefoot. An arch type support orthotic may be useful if a bunion is associated with a flatter foot. If you have a bunion this is however just one other thing to get into a shoe with an already wide foot. Bunions

Surgical Treatment
When these above measures no longer help to relieve the pain in the big toe, surgery to correct the bunion deformity is considered. Numerous surgical procedures have been recommended for bunions. What is most critical is that the type of deformity is carefully evaluated, because one bunion surgery cannot be used for all types of bunions. If the big toe joint is rotated out of place, the joint must be rotated back in place for the procedure to work. Conversely, a bunion can occur with the big toe still ?in place.? If surgery is considered, the bunion must be corrected with the toe joint left in its current position. In other words, one type of bunion repair does not work for everyone. In all types of bunion repairs, ligaments and tendons (soft tissues) around the big toe joint are reconstructed, to allow the toe to be straightened. Most bunion procedures also require cutting the metatarsal bone, which is then fixed with metal screws to hold the bone in position until it heals. It usually takes 2 to 4 months to fully recover from bunion surgery, which is why it is always the last course of treatment.

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