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[转载]一个外国人对太极站桩与行拳的理论分析(一)

(2011-10-29 23:05:57)
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分类: 太极拳

该文章发表在2003年德国一家名为《太极与气功》杂志上, 作者从另一个角度阐述对站桩以及太极行拳的理解。现将该文部分翻译如下,希望对各位拳友有所启迪。

 

--时间仓促,译作略显粗糙,望高手指正!

 

Posture, Movement and Balance 姿势,运动和平衡

We generally think of posture and movement as being separate - we are either still or we move. Movement and posture place different demands on our muscles and so it is not surprising that our muscles reflect this. For example, those muscles used mainly for posture have a high content of slow-twitch fibres whereas the muscles used mainly for movement have a high content of fast twitch fibres. But not only are muscles different from each other, one muscle can be quite different in different functions. For example a muscle when used in a postural (stabilising or tonic) function will act differently from the same muscle when used for movement (mobilising or phasic function). So for ease of explanation, let me pretend that each muscle is really two muscles - a postural one and a phasic one (sometimes called stabilisers and mobilisers). As a further simplification, when I say a muscle, what I will mean is the muscle with all the various sensors associated with it plus its controlling mechanism within the Central Nervous System. So please keep it in mind when I talk about muscles 'feeling this' or 'doing that'.

我们常常认为保持姿势与运动是两个不同的状态, 要么是静止,要么是运动中. 然而,运动与保持静止是由我们身体上不同的肌肉作用来完成的. 比如说:主要用于保持静止状态的肌肉群通常会由慢收缩肌纤维构成,用于运动的肌肉群则主要由快收缩纤维构成。不仅仅是肌肉的组成不同,一块肌肉还可以在不同功能行动中发挥不同的作用.比如同一组肌肉在身体保持静止和运动当中发挥的作用就是远不相同的.为了我们阐述方便,我们假设每一组肌肉都由两部分构成: 状态肌和运动肌。简单点说,当我说肌肉的时候,通常是指在中枢神经控制下的各种肌感细胞及控制完成机械动作的相关单位的总称。

 

What is important about postural muscles from our perspective is the fact that they react against the force of gravity and that they act outside of our volition - we cannot normally control postural muscles directly, only indirectly - through intent. For example when we ride a bicycle, we keep our balance by the use of postural muscles. Our intent is not to fall down but we do not consciously control their operation in the way we can control voluntary movement. Conscious control would be too slow - before we could react, we would fall down. This is in fact what happens when we start learning to ride a bicycle - we start by using phasic muscles and through trial and error the postural muscles take over and we 'find our balance'.

我们理解的状态肌群最重要的功能是用来克服地心引力并且不受我们的意念的直接控制,而只能是通过意识的间接控制。举个例子,当我们骑自行车的时候,我们实际上是在用我们的状态肌肉来保持平衡。我们的意识里是不要摔倒,但我们这时候是不能像控制其它运动行为一样来控制这种动作的。意念控制往往来得很慢,通常是在我们做出反应之前,我们就已经摔倒了。这像我们刚开始学骑车时候一样,我们开始总是试图用运动肌来控制它,然而不断的失败尝试后最终还是学会了用状态肌来掌控它的平衡。

 

Our postural muscles are not only used in holding a posture or in balancing as was mentioned above, but during movement, too. If we think of movement as a transition between postures, we can see that postural muscles are active all the time. But what is the relevance of postural muscles to Taijiquan?

状态肌不仅仅是我们上面说过的用来保持我们身体的姿势的平衡,在运动中也发挥着作用。如果我们把运动看成是状态的间的转换(我的理解是像微积分一样把动作细分成无限细微的静止状态),我们马上会明白其实状态肌群也一直在起着作用。但是状态肌群又和太极拳有什么关系呢?

 

Effortless and Natural 自然不用力

If someone pushes against you and you do not want to be pushed off balance, the chances are that you will resist using strength. If this happens, you are using phasic muscles. But it will be different if someone pushes down on your shoulders. In this situation you do not push back up - you just absorb the push effortlessly into your posture. So in the first example if, instead of phasic muscles, you were to use postural muscles to absorb the push into your posture, you would use far less effort. You could then also use the 'balancing' ability of postural muscles to effortlessly counteract any sudden change of direction. In other words, as the Taiji Classics say: "when he doesn't move, you don't move; when he moves, you've already moved". So using postural muscles in this way would make Pushing Hands a far more enjoyable experience!

如果有人来推你而你不想被推倒,你自然会用力来抵抗。这样一来,运动肌就会起作用。但当有人从上而下推按你的肩膀时情况就不同了,这时你不需要顶抗,就会毫不费力吸收掉作用在身体上的力。在第一个例子中,我们如果使用状态肌代替运动肌来吸收化掉来力的话,你会发现变得很轻松。你甚至也可以用状态肌“保持平衡”这一能力来很自然的应对来力方向的突然改变。这就正像太极拳论里所讲的一样:彼不动,我不动;彼欲动,我先动。运用状态肌来完成推手会让推手变成一件非常令人愉悦的事情。

 

Where the Mind Goes, the Qi Follows 气随意行

The parallels between Qi and the use of postural muscles should be becoming a bit clearer now. When I use intent (Yi) to guide my postural muscles to lift my arms, I do not feel any effort - it is as if my arms are being lifted by invisible threads. When I use postural muscles to absorb or neutralise a push, I don't feel any effort and my body reacts automatically to produce a balanced outcome for me. And when you start using postural muscles, you develop a feedback through subtle sensations such as heat, ache, flow and others. All these are properties of Qi. If we describe (human) Qi as 'those processes of the body/mind that are outside conscious control' than we would cover most aspects.

气与状态肌之间的关系现在应该变得更加明显了。

当我用意念控制我的状态肌来举起我的手臂,我不会感到用多大的力量,只感觉好像我的胳膊被无形的线拉起来一样。当我使用状态肌来化解或吸收来力时,我可以毫不费力的自然应对而同时又能保持我身体的平衡。当你开始使用状态肌肉工作时,你就会慢慢提高身体对一些像热、痛等细微感觉刺激的反应能力。所有这些都是“气”的特性。如果我们把人类的“气”看作“不受我们身体意念控制的产物”就可以解释清楚大多数问题了。

 

Qi originates in the Dantian 气发丹田

When you make any movement, before the movement begins there is a short delay during which the body prepares by stabilising your lumbar spine using deep abdominal postural muscles. Normally you will not feel this 'preparation', but it is there and as your awareness increases you can feel it. As we said in the above paragraph, usage of postural muscles equates to usage of Qi. Thus any movement is preceded by activation of your Qi in your Dantian (think of it loosely as the lower abdomen).

当我们做运动的时候,在运动即将开始的瞬间,身体试图通过腹部状态肌群来控制腰脊平衡之前有一个短暂的间歇准备,通常情况下,你不会感觉到这个准备的过程,但它是的确存在的,而往往当你意识灵敏度越高时你会越感觉到它的存在。正如我们上段所描述,状态肌的使用等同于“气”的使用。亦即运动源于丹田之气动。

Your body will not move till it is properly stabilised. This is important for fast moves, especially explosive fa-jin. The delay produced by stabilisation of your lumbar spine makes you slower. This does not matter very much for slow movements. But when you want to move fast, you do want to move fast! There is a way to eliminate or at least minimise this delay by holding your body in a posture where your postural muscles are already engaged.

身体稳定准备之前是不会动的。这对于快速运动特别是发劲时尤其重要。腰脊由于需要保持身体稳定而产生的延时让我们的重心降低。这在慢运动中不会产生太大的影响。一旦你想快速运动起来,让状态肌群来参与的保持身体一定的姿势会尽可能消除减少这种延迟时间。

 

Song

The posture just described is what is called Song (loose, relaxed) in Taiji Classics. What is important in this posture is that everything that can be supported by postural muscles, is indeed so supported. Your body feels light (you can't feel postural muscles) and poised for action, perfectly balanced. You could even say that (quoting Taiji Classics again) "a feather cannot be added to the body nor a fly alight without setting you in motion".

这种状态在太极中就叫做“松”。在这种状态中所有动作都由状态肌群来完成。身体感觉很轻而且能在动作中保持平衡。你甚至可以做到:“一羽不能加,蚊蝇不能落”。

 

Whole Body Movement 整体运动

If you stand on one leg and observe for a time what you do to keep upright, you may notice that the adjustment to your posture can happen anywhere from your ankles all the way to your head. That's because postural muscles co-ordinate across the whole body. When you use postural muscles, rather than phasic muscles, you will naturally produce whole body movement.

一如果用一只脚站立保持身体直立姿势一段时间后你就会发现:身体为保持这个姿势做出的调整是从下到上各个部位的。这时因为身体所有状态肌群在协同工作。当你利用状态肌而不是运动肌群完成动作时,你的身体会很自然的做整体的运动。

 

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