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丽媛2010中石油职称英语(第57课:

(2010-02-18 22:12:17)
标签:

教育

分类: 中石油职称英语考试
Listening Faults(聆听的误区)
  1. Have you ever thought of listening as something you could do right or wrong? Few people had, until recently. Now it is being proved that most of us aren't letting our ears do all they should to help us. And we are losing out in ways both large and small, which is too bad when we realize that good listening can be very valuable indeed. In fact it is surprising just how big a part our two listening ears play in our success in school, in our careers, in our relations with family and friends.
1、你是否想过聆听也有对错之分?至今,很少有人思考过这个问题。目前已经证明,大多数人没能让耳朵尽其所能来帮助我们。当我们意识到有效的倾听是多么重要时,我们才知道自己在很多方面都有所损失,这真是太糟糕了。事实上,两只耳朵在我们的学习、工作和与家庭、朋友的关系里扮演的角色之重要,实在令人惊讶。
Listening=聆听;Fault=过错
  think of=考虑;listening=聆听; as=如;right or wrong=对或错; Few people=几乎没有人; until recently=至今,recently 近来;prove=证明; most of us=(我们)大多数人;ear=耳;lose out =输掉; both large and small=大或小; too bad =糟糕;realize=认识到; good listening=有效聆听; valuable=值钱的;indeed=确实;In fact=事实;surprise=惊讶;big=重要; part=角色; listening=聆听; play=扮演;success=成功; career=career职业; relation=关系;
2. Therefore, how we listen is extremely important. Yet it has been proved that most of us are guilty of from one to nine bad listening habits.
  2、因此,如何聆听极其重要。然而,事实证明下面提到的九个聆听坏习惯中或多或少都能在大多数人的身上找到。
 Therefore=因此; extremely=极其;important=重要;Yet=然而; prove=证明; guilty=问心有愧;from one to nine=从一到九;bad=坏的; listening=聆听; habit=习惯;
3. Few of us want to be poor listeners or even realize that we are—until we meet up with situations which show us.
  3、没有人愿意做一个不会听话的人,即便就是这样的人,本人也意识不到,除非事实明摆在眼前。
 Few of us =我们当中几乎没有人; poor listener=不会听话的人; realize=认识到; until =到...为止; meet up with =偶遇;situation=情况; show=显示;
4. Take Janet, for instance.
4、以简尼特为例。
for instance=例如;
  5. It came as a horrid shock to her to learn on the way to Sunday school one morning that she was to have read certain chapters in the Bible and be prepared with a little talk on them that day. And no wonder Janet was surprised. She thought she had been listening in class the week before. But apparently the words had bounced right off her ears. Why? How had she listened wrong?
  5、一天早晨,在去教会的周日学校的路上,她突然记起他应该要读过《圣经》中的几个章节,并且还要准备好在那天就这几个章节作一个小小的发言,这让她非常震惊。也难怪简尼特有此反应。她以为一个星期前自己在课堂上认真听讲,但很显然,这些话只是从她耳边掠过。为什么?她错在哪里?
a horrid shock=可怕的震惊, horrid可怕的,shock震惊; to her=对于她;learn =意识到;on the way to Sunday school=在去教会的周日学校的路上;one morning =一天早晨; to have read(读)=不定式to read的完成式;  certain=某; chapter=(书籍)章;Bible=基督教《圣经》;(to) be prepared(准备)=不定式to prepared被动语态,to被省略。a little talk=小的发言; on them=关于他们(那些章节); that day=那天; no wonder =不足为奇的;Janet=简尼特; surprise=惊奇; think=认为; listening=聆听; in class the week before=一个星期前在课堂上; apparently=显然地; word=话;bounced right off her ears=从她耳边掠过,bounced跳跃; right off立刻; listen=听;wrong=错;

中英文语言习惯的小区别:
那个人在 北京市 一所学校的 大楼的 二层的 教室里。
这是我们中文说话顺序的习惯^_^
那个人在教室里二层的大楼的一所学校的北京市
这是英国人说话的习惯^_^
因此英文翻译“那个人在 北京市 一所学校的 大楼的 二层的 教室里。”就是如下:
The man    is  in the   classroom on the second floor   in the building  in the school   in BEIJING .

这种现象在这课中很典型,如课文中的下句话:
中文:事实上,两只耳朵在我们学有所成上扮演的角色之重要,实在令人惊讶。
英文:事实上,它实在令人惊讶 重要之角色 两只耳朵扮演的 在我们的成功 学习上。
课文中的此句的英文就是:
In fact it is surprising  just how big a part our two listening ears play in our success in school

养成以英国人说话的习惯看英文文章吧^_^!

6. There are about nine ways of listening that net us nothing but trouble, according to Dr. Ralph Nichols of the University of Minnesota. If we recognize and try to conquer them, we can step up our listening ability by about twenty-five percent and thereby greatly increase our chances for success in our daily lives.
  6、明尼苏达州立大学的Ralph Nichols博士认为,有9种聆听的情形给人们造成麻烦。如果认识到并且努力克服它们,我们的聆听能力就能提高25%,从而大大增加我们在日常生活中成功的机会。
nine ways of listening=有9种聆听的情形; that net us nothing but trouble=使我们得到的除了麻烦没有别的, net得到,nothing 什么也没有,but=除了;according to=按照; Dr. Ralph Nichols=Ralph Nichols博士; the University of Minnesota=明尼苏达州大学; recognize=认识到;try to=设法; conquer=征服; step up=逐步提高;listening=聆听; ability=能力; by about twenty-five percent=大约25%;thereby=从而; greatly increase=大大增加;our chances for success=我们成功的机会;daily lives=日常生活.
7. Unless you are very unusual indeed, says Dr. Nichols, you must plead guilty to several of the following bad listening habits:
  7、RalphNichols博士认为,除非你非常特殊,否则的话,你一定会承认自己有下面提到的坏习惯。
Unless=除非;unusual=与众不同的; indeed=确实; Dr. Nichols=RalphNichols博士; plead guilty =服罪,plead主张,guilty问心有愧; several of the following =下面几个;bad listening habits=聆听的坏习惯:
8. Daydream Listening: You can think about four times as fast as the average person speaks. So you have quite a bit of spare thinking time while waiting for the words to come in. Unconsciously, you use this time, if you are a poor listener, to let your thoughts drift elsewhere.
  8、白日梦式聆听:人思考的速度比平均的说话速度快4倍。因此,在等待别人说出下一句话时,你会有一段空余的思维时间。如果你是一个差劲的聆听者,你的思绪就会不知不觉地在这段时间飘走。
  Daydream Listening=白日梦式聆听,Daydream白日梦; think about=思考; four times as fast as the average person speaks=比人平均的说话速度快4倍,four times 4倍,average 平均的; So =因此;have=有;quite a bit=相当多; spare thinking time=思维时间; while=当...; wait for=等待; word=话; come in=进来,这里指你听到的声音进耳朵了. Unconsciously=.不知不觉地;you use this time=你使用这段时间;if you are a poor listener=如果你是一个差劲的听众;thought=思考; drift=漂流; elsewhere=在别处;
9. For instance, your teacher is giving you some background material on American history. Your mind is with him at first. Then other thoughts drift into that spare thinking space. Without warning, they have taken over your mind entirely.. I mustn't forget to go downtown after school for Mother. If only my bike was fixed! Maybe I can get Joe to come over Saturday and help me.. Your thoughts drift on. Suddenly, with a jolt, you hear these words: "Now we'll have a little test on what I have been explaining." Ouch!
  9、比如说,你的老师正在讲述美国历史的背景资料。起初你注意地听着;之后,其他的念头就会进入那段空余的思维时间;然后在没有任何预兆的情况下,完全占据你的整个大脑……“一定别忘记放学后替母亲进城办事”。“要是我的自行车修理好了该多好!,“也许能让Joe星期六过来帮我……”你的思绪就这样漫无目的地飘荡,突然间,你听到这样令人震惊的话:“现在,就我刚才讲的进行一个小测验。”真糟糕啊!
 For instance=例如; background=背景; material=材料; on American history=关于美国历史;mind=头脑;with=随;at first=起初; other thoughts=其他的念头,thought思考; drift into=飘进,drift漂流;that spare thinking space=那段空余的思维时间; Without warning=没有预兆,warning预兆; they have take over=接管; mind entirely=整个大脑…entire整个的; forget =忘记; go downtown=到市区,downtown 城市的商业区(的);after school=放学后; Mother=母亲; If only =只要; fix=修理; Maybe =大概; get =让;Joe=乔; to come over=过来; Saturday =星期六; help me=帮我; Your thoughts=你的思绪,thought思考; drift=漂流;; Suddenly=突然地; with =随着;a jolt=一个震惊; hear =听; word=话;a little test=小试验; on=关于; I have been explaining=我刚才讲的,explain解释; Ouch=哎哟
10. So what to do to keep daydreams from filtering in? One way is to put that extra thinking time to work—on the subject. Sum up what the speaker is saying; look for major points. Pretend you are going to have to repeat his ideas. Put his words into your words. It isn't easy. It takes effort and time to learn. But the results are sure to surprise and please you.
  10、那么,怎样做才能控制“白日梦”钻进来呢?一个方法是把这些多出来的思维时间用来考虑一些跟主题有关的事。例如,概括一下发言人说的话;找出他的发言要点;假定你要重复他的观点,将他的话用自己的方式重新复述一遍。要做到这些并不容易,你必须付出时间和精力去学习。但是,结果肯定是出乎意料和愉快的。
So what to do=那么,怎样做; keep from=阻止; daydream=白日梦; filter=过滤; One way =一个方法; extra=额外的; thinking time=思维时间; on the subject=有关主题. Sum up=概括;speaker =发言人; look for=寻找; major=主要的; point=要点; Pretend=假装; be going to=要; repeat=重说;idea=观点;Put his words into your words=把他的话翻译自己的话,put into 把...翻译成; It isn't easy=这不容易;take =拿; effort=努力; time=时间; to learn=为了学习. Result=结果; sure=肯定; surprise=惊奇;please=满足的
It takes effort and time to learn付出时间和精力去学习,to learn是learn的不定式,不定式=to+动词原形,一般说来不定式和不定式短语用作表示某种目的。
11. Shut-Ear Listening: Maybe you feel you already know what the speaker is going to say. Or his subject couldn't interest you less. You turn off your ears—and who knows what you may be missing or when a little knowledge on that subject may come in mighty handy? Anyway, why take the risk?
  11、充耳不闻式聆听:可能你觉得早已经知道发言者将要说什么;或者,他讲的主题根本不能吸引你,因此你“关闭”了耳朵—那么,谁知道你可能错过了什么?谁又知道什么时候他讲的可能会派上用场?不管怎样,为什么要冒这样的风险呢?
  11. Shut-Ear Listening=充耳不闻式聆听,shut关闭; Maybe=大概; you feel you already know what the speaker is going to say=可能你觉得早已经知道发言者将要说什么,be going to要; his subject=他的主题 ; interest=使发生兴趣;less=很少;turn off=关掉; who knows what you may be missing =谁知道你可能错过了什么; a little knowledge on that subject=关于那个主题的一点点知识,knowledge知识;  mighty=巨大的;handy=方便的; Anyway=不管怎样; risk=风险;
12. "That's-What-You-Think" Listening: You have your own pet ideas on certain subjects. You don't like to hear anything which might make you question them. So when anyone begins arguing on the other side, you simply stop listening. Instead you plan what you are going to answer. Anyone who refuses too often to listen to the other side of a question risks becoming narrow-minded—an exasperating and unattractive trait in the other fellow. Is it any more becoming to you? No thanks, you say, and decide to hear the other fellow out. Maybe he is right. Maybe you are. But you can give him a better argument on your viewpoint if you hear what he says.
  12、内心排斥式聆听:对于某些主题你会有自己的观点,就不愿意听到与之相左的见解。因此,当别人开始陈述与你相反看法时,你干脆不再听。只是思考着自己该怎样回应。那些经常拒绝倾听对立意见的人往往会变得思维狭窄—这在别人眼中是一种令人恼怒和厌烦的表现。你现在还想成为这样的人吗?你会说,当然不。然后决定去认真地听完别人的阐述。可能他是正确的,也可能你是正确的。但是,如果你听了他的观点,你就可以用自己的观点更好地去反驳他
  12. "That's-What-You-Think" Listening=内心排斥式聆听; your own pet ideas=自己的好观点,pet宠爱的; on certain subjects=关于某些主题,certain某; question=怀疑; argue on=辩论; other side=对方,side方面, simply=简单地; stop listening=停止聆听; Instead=代替; answer=答案; refuse=拒绝; listen to=听; the other side of a question=对方意见,question提议; risk=风险; narrow-minded=气量小的;exasperating=激怒的人;unattractive=讨厌的; trait=特征; other fellow=别人,fellow 同伴; Is it any more becoming to you? =你现在还想成为这样的人吗,any more 还;No thanks=不, 谢谢; decide =决定; hear out=听完;other fellow=别人,fellow 同伴; Maybe he is right. Maybe you are.=可能他是正确的,也可能你是正确的。a better argument=有力的反驳;argument 辩论;viewpoint=观点;if you hear what he says=如果你听了他说的.
13. Fake Listening: You pretend to be giving close attention. You toss in a few nods and yeses at the right moments, you hope. This is a common faulty listening habit that fools no one. Your eyes give you away, if your absent-minded answers don't. And can you think of anything more infuriating than to be given the same treatment? Also, it is extremely difficult to respond satisfactorily to words you didn't hear. Good conversations, if not friendships, have been sacrificed to this habit.
  13、佯装式聆听:你假装在注意听;还期望自己在恰当的时刻能够点头附和。这种常见的坏的聆听习惯欺骗不了任何人。即使那些不着边际的回答没露馅,你的眼睛也会出卖你。有什么能比受到(听众)这样的对待更让人生气呢?而且,对自己没有认真聆听的问题做出满意的回答是极其困难的。这样一个坏习惯让你失去的可能不仅仅是交流,甚至可能是与别人的友谊。
   Fake[v.假装,伪装] Listening=佯装式聆听,fake假装; pretend=假装; close attention=密切注意,attention 注意; toss=扔; a few nods=几次点头,nod点头;  yeses=是(复数); at the right moments=恰当的时刻,moment片刻; a common faulty listening=常见的错误的聆听; habit=习惯; fool=愚弄; no one=没人; Your eyes give you away=你的眼睛出卖你, give away出卖; if your absent-minded=心不在焉的; answer=答案; think of=考虑; anything=任何事; more than=更... infuriating=令人发怒的; the same treatment=这样的对待,treatment 对待; extremely=极其; difficult=困难;respond=回应; satisfactorily=令人满意的; to=对于; words you didn't hear=自己没听的话,word话; Good conversations=好的交流,conversation谈话; if not =不然的话;friendship=友谊; sacrifice=牺牲; habit=习惯;
14. Over-My-Head Listening: You are convinced that the subject is beyond you, so you depart, at least in spirit. You may be right. And then again you may be wrong. If you let the words enter your mind, you may be surprised to discover that they make sense. But even if they are as strange as Greek to you, you should try to listen and understand. Otherwise you may find some day that you must attempt to grasp an over-your-head idea and be totally unable even to try.
  14、不知所云式聆听:你确信正在谈论的主题超过了你的理解范围,于是你起身离开,至少也是心猿意马。你可能做的对;但你也可能是错的。如果你用心去听,就可能会惊讶地发现这些话很有道理。即使这些词句像希腊语般晦涩难懂,你还是应该尽力去聆听和理解。否则有一天你会发现自己处在这样一种境地:必须要听懂某些艰深的内容,但自己却连基本的能力都没有。
  14. Over-My-Head Listening=不知所云式聆听,Over-My-Head使我不能理解; convince=使确信; subject=主题; beyond=超过; so =因此;you depart=离开; at least=至少;in spirit=在精神上,spirit精神; You may be right=你可能做的对;And then=然后; again =再次;you may be wrong=你可能是错的; word=话; enter=进入;your mind=你的大脑; surprise=惊奇; discover=发现; make sense=有意义,sense 感觉; even if=即使; as ...as=同...一样;strange =生疏的; Greek =希腊语; try to =设法;listen=听; understand=理解;Otherwise=要不然; attempt=试图;grasp=领会;Over-your-Head=使你不能理解; idea =思想; totally=完全; unable=不能的; even to try=甚至去试试.
15. Memory Test Listening: Some people think that trying to memorize a series of facts is good listening. They are wrong. For instance, you are getting a story for your school paper on an assembly speaker. He makes a series of points. You try to memorize them. But while you are busy planting facts A, B, and C in your mind, repeating them over and over, you are losing out on facts D and E. Better to look for main ideas. You will find them more useful and easier to recall later.
  15、记忆测试式聆听:有人认为有效的聆听就是将所有的细节都记住。他们错了。比如,你想从某人的大会发言中为自己的论文汲取素材。他罗列了很多点,你努力去记住它们。当你忙着重复一条条观点,想把它们牢牢地记在脑子里时,却恰恰忽略了其余内容。最好的方式是抓住要点,你会发现它们更有用,而且更容易帮助你回忆。
  Memory Test Listening=记忆测试式聆听,Memory记忆; Some people=有人; think=认为; try to=设法; memorize=记住;a series of=一系列; fact=论据;listening=聆听; They are wrong=他们错了; For instance=例如;you are get=取得; story =素材; school=学习; paper =论文; assembly=集会; speaker=演讲人;a series of=一系列;point=要点; try to=设法; memorize=记住; busy=忙; plant=种植,这里指记录;fact=论据; mind=大脑, repeat=重做; over and over=再三; lose out on =[美口]输去;fact=论据; Better=较好; look for main ideas=抓住要点,look for 寻找,main主要; more useful=更有用; easier =较容易;recall=回忆;later=稍后.
16. Take-It-All-Down Listening: When you try to get too many of the speaker's words on paper, part of your mind must be concerned with your note-taking. You are unable to concentrate fully on what he is saying. You risk losing valuable points. Where note-taking is necessary—and you may be surprised to find out how often it isn't if you concentrate fully on listening—try to jot down only a memory-jogging word or two. Or put the main ideas on paper after the speaker has finished. The more complete attention you give the speaker, the easier it will be to recall his ideas later.
  16、全部记录式聆听:当你奋力记录说话人的尽可能多的词句时,一部分注意力必然会集中在“笔记”之上。因此,你不会全力倾听,就可能错过有价值的信息。如果你全神贯注地听,并不时记下一两点内容以帮助记忆,你会惊讶地发现,并不是所有的东西都需要记录,甚至可以在演讲结束后再记下要点。对发言者的关注越多,事后就越容易回忆起他的主要观点。
Take-It-All-Down Listening=全部记录式聆听; try to=设法; get too =奋力取得;many of the speaker's words =说话人的尽可能多的话;paper=纸; part of your mind=你的一部分头脑, concern with =使关心;your note=你的“笔记”;re unable to= 不能的; concentrate on=专心致志于;fully=完全地; what he is saying=他在说什么;risk=风险;lose =错过;valuable=值钱的; point=要点; Where note-taking is necessary=什么地方需要做笔记,necessary 需要; surprise=惊奇;find out=找出; how often it isn't=它不是要经常做,it代表笔记; concentrate on=专心致志于;fully=完全地; listening=聆听;try to=设法; jot down=草草记下,jot记简短的笔记; only=只不过; a memory-jogging word or two=不时记下一两点,jog慢跑; put on=把...放在上; main ideas=主要的观念,main主要; after the speaker has finished=演讲人结束后,finish完成; The more....the easier=越...越容易...; complete=完全的; attention=注意; speaker=演讲者; recall=回忆; his ideas=他的观点; later=以后.
17. Personality Listening: You become so concerned with the way the speaker looks or how he talks that what he says fails to penetrate. Perhaps unconsciously you decide that a person who dresses or speaks like that can't have much to say. That could be a very false conclusion. Who knows what you may be missing? It's the old story: you can't judge a gift by the package. Better to judge him after you have heard him out.
  17、关注个人式聆听:过分关注讲话者的长相或是他说话的方式,那么他所说的内容就很难入心。也许你会下意识地认为这样穿着或这样讲话的人不会说出什么有见地的话来。这样的结论实属错误。谁能知道你会错过什么?俗话说,不要从包装来判断礼物的价值(人不可貌相)。最好在倾听完之后再作评价。
 Personality Listening=关注个人式聆听,Personality人物; so...that=如此...以致...;concern with =使关心; way =方式;the speaker looks=讲话者的长相,look面容; how he talks=他说话的方式; fails to =未能;penetrate看透;. Perhaps=也许; unconsciously=不知不觉地; decide=判断;  person who dresses or speaks like =象这样穿着或这样讲话的人,person 人,dress=穿衣; a very false conclusion=非常错误的结论,false不正确的;conclusion结论; Who knows what you may be missing?=谁能知道你会错过什么? Miss错过;It's the old story=俗话说;judge=判断; a gift=礼物; by the package=由包装,package 包装; Better to judge=最好判断; after you have heard him out=你倾听他完之后,hear out=听完.
18. Half-An-Ear Listening: Often other sounds compete for your attention—and win. Your father gives you a list of errands. But his voice must compete with, say, your favorite song on the radio. Later, you find that half an ear wasn't enough. You didn't listen to your father's words closely enough to hear and remember them. You have to telephone home for a repeat performance. And you can't really blame your father for being irritated. Better to turn off the radio, shut the door on competing noises, if possible. If not, guard against your tendency to listen to distracting sounds.
  18、半个耳朵式聆听:常常会有其他的声音来吸引你的注意力——还占了上风。比如,父亲正在给你交待要办的事情,他的声音不得不与收音机里传来的你最喜欢的歌声相抗衡。后来你发现这样“半个耳朵听”根本不行,因为你没有听到并记住父亲的话,于是只能打电话回家再次询问。你实在不能责怪父亲为此发火。如果可能,最好关掉收音机、关上门挡住繁杂的噪音。如果不可能,管住你自己不要被这些声音所吸引。
18. Half-An-Ear Listening=半个耳朵式聆听; Often other sounds=常常其他的声音; compete for=为...竞争,这里指吸引你,compete比赛; your attention=你的注意力; win=赢. a list of=一列, list明细表; errand=差使(如送信,买东西等); voice=说话声;compete=比赛; your favorite=你最喜欢,favorite=特别喜欢的;song on the radio=收音机里的歌声,radio收音机; Later=稍后; you find that half an ear wasn't enough=你发现 “半个耳朵听”根本不行,enough足够; You didn't listen to your father's word=你没有听到父亲的话; closely enough to hear and remember them=接近听够并记住的话. You have to telephone home for a repeat performance=你只能打电话回家再次询问,have to不得不,telephone打电话,repeat重复,performance 履行; really=真的; blame=责怪; being irritated=恼怒的,irritating的被动语态; Better to turn off the radio=最好关掉收音机; shut=关上; door=门;compete=比赛;noises=噪音,if possible=如果可能的话;If not=不然的话, guard against =提防,guard 守卫;tendency=趋势; listen to=听; distract=转移(注意力); sound=声音;
19. So there are the forces—some within ourselves, some outside—that work against us in our efforts to listen. But once we learn what they are and how to fight them, we are well on our way to getting rid of wasteful listening habits.
19、所以,某些因素—既有内在的,也有外在的——总是阻碍我们去全力倾听。然而,一旦认识了它们并了解如何去克服,我们就一定能够改掉这些耗
So=所以;force=力量,这里指因素;some within=内在的,within 在......里面;ourselves=ourselves; some outside=外在的,outside 在..之外;
work against=反作用,against阻止;effort=努力; listen=听;But=但是; once=一旦; learn=了解; what they are =他们是什么; how to fight them=怎样克服他们; well=很好; on=依附于;our way =我们的办法; get=使;rid=摆脱;of =具有;wasteful=浪费的; listening=聆听; habit习惯;

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