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丽媛2010中石油职称英语(第41课:

(2010-02-18 21:57:06)
标签:

教育

分类: 中石油职称英语考试
An Introduction to Petrochemicals(石油化工产品概述)
  1. The petroleum era was ushered in by the 1859 finding at Titusville, Pennsylvania, but the flourishing of chemicals from petroleum has been only since the early twentieth century. Natural gas and petroleum are in fact our chief sources of hydrocarbons. Natural gas is quite variable in composition, but the major constituent (>60%) is methane. Other components are the homologous alkanes, ethane, propane, and higher hydrocarbons. In terms of volume, most of the natural gas produced is used for fuel, although a substantial amount is used as raw material for the synthesis of various types of chemicals.
1、1859宾西法尼亚洲Titusville地区钻出油井,开创了石油时代。但从石油中成功地提取化学产品,则直到20世纪早期才开始。实际上,天然气和石油是我们碳氢化合物的主要来源。天然气在成分上不大稳定,但主要成分(60%)是甲烷。,其他组分有同系烷、乙烷、丙烷以及高分子碳氢化合物。从数量看,尽管有相当数量的天然气用作各种合成化合物的原料,但所生产的大多数天然气用作燃料。
Introduction=介绍;Petrochemical=石化产品
Petroleum=石油;era=时代;usher in=开创; by the 1859 =直到1859年;find=发现; at Titusville=在Titusville; Pennsylvania=宾夕凡尼亚州; flourishing=繁荣的; chemical=化学制品;petroleum=石油; since=从…以来;the early twentieth century=20世纪早期,century世纪; Natural gas=天然气; petroleum=石油;in fact=实际上;chief=主要的; source=来源; hydrocarbon=碳化氢化合物; Natural gas=天然气; quite=相当; variable=易变的; composition=成分;major=主要的;constituent=成分;methane=甲烷; component=组分;homologous alkanes=同系烷,homologous [生物]同源的, alkanes=烷; ethane=乙烷; propane=丙烷; higher hydrocarbons=高分子碳氢化合物,hydrocarbon碳化氢化合物, In terms of=根据;volume=数量; most of the Natural gas=大多数天然气; produce=生产;is used for=用来做...; fuel=燃料; although=尽管; substantial=可观的; amount=数量;as =做为;raw material=原料,raw未经加工的,material 材原料; synthesis=合成;various=各种各样的;type=类型; chemical=化学品
这篇课文是历次考试的重点,所以有必要介绍如下常识:
石油的概念
石油(又称原油)---crude oil:一种存在于地下岩石(rock)孔隙(pore)介质(medium)中的由各种碳氢化合物(hydrocarbon)与杂质组成的,呈液态(liquid)和稠态的油脂(grease)状天然可燃有机矿产。
    组成石油的成分(composition)非常复杂,我们书中提到的分类方法,是根据馏分组成、组分组成和化合物组成,对石油进行分类。
石油的馏分(fraction):是利用组成石油的化合物具有不同沸点的特性,加热蒸馏(distillation),将石油切割成不同沸点范围(即馏程)的若干部分,每一部分就是一个馏分。
如升温至40 ℃~150 ℃时,可蒸馏出汽油(gasoline);再由150 ℃升温至300 ℃时,可分离出煤油(kerosene),再由300 ℃开始,又可分离出重油(reduced crude )。由于重油沸点很高,到 400 ℃也不蒸发,科学家又采用减压加热法(vacuum distillation),将重油分离成柴油(“gas oil” or“diesel oil”  )、润滑油(lubricating oil)、石蜡(“wax” or “paraffin”)、沥青(“asphalt”or“pitch”)等许多有用的物质。
石油的组分(component):石油化合物的不同组分对溶剂和吸附剂有选择性,这样选用不同溶剂和吸附剂,可将石油分成若干部分,每一部分就是一个组分,分别为油质、苯胶质、洒精苯胶质及沥青质。
油质:凡能溶解于中性有机溶剂,不被硅胶所吸附,浅黄色粘性油状物。
    苯胶质:能溶解于中性有机溶剂,被硅胶所吸附,主要溶于苯,属暗色的油状物。
    洒精苯胶质:溶于酒精和苯,同时也被苯所吸附。
    沥青质:用石油醚分离,得到一种不溶于石油醚的物质暗黑色-黑色沥青状无定形的固体。
石油的化合物组成:在近代实验室中,用液相色谱可将石油划分为烃类化合物:正构烷烃、异构烷烃、环烷烃、芳烃和非烃化合物及沥青质。
  2. The chemical industry depends very heavily on petroleum, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as sources of raw materials. It is likely that in excess of 90% of the literally thousands of different basic organic chemicals employed today are derived from these sources.
2、化学工业的原材料来源严重依赖石油、天然气和液态天然气。当今所应用的上千种不同的基本有机化学产品中很可能有超过90%的产品来自这些资源。
  The chemical industry=化学工业,chemical化学的; depend on=依赖; very heavily=严重,heavily很重地; petroleum=石油;natural gas=天然气; natural gas liquids=液态天然气, liquid液体; sources of raw materials=原材料来源,source来源,raw未经加工的,material原料;likely=很可能; excess=超过; literally=差不多;thousands of different basic organic chemicals=上千种不同的基本有机化学产品,basic 基本,organic 有机的; employ=使用;be derived from =源自于...derive取得;source=资源;

  3. The petrochemical industry has grown with the petroleum industry and is considered by some to be a mature industry. However, as is the case with the latest trends in changing crude oil types, it must also evolve to meet changing technological needs.  
3、石油化学工业是随着石油工业发展起来的,而且有人认为已是一个成熟的工业部门。然而,从原油类型变化的最新趋势来看,石油化学工业同样需要进一步发展以适应技术发展的需要。
 3. Petrochemical industry=石油化学工业; grow=发展;with=和 ;the Petroleum industry=石油工业; consider=认为;some=有些人; mature=成熟;industry=工业;However=然而;as is the case=..的情况是; with=就; the latest =最新的发展;trend=趋势; change=变化;crude oil=原油;type=类型;it =它,这里指石油化学工业;must... needs =必须;also =同样;evolve=发展; meet=对付;change=变化;technological=技术的;
However, as is the case with the latest trends in changing crude oil types, it must also evolve to meet changing technological needs. 以As句首的倒装句,注意谓语动词“is”在主语“the case”之前了。
  4. The manufacture of chemicals or chemical intermediates from petroleum and natural gas constituents is an excellent example of the conversion of such materials to more valuable products. The individual chemicals made from petroleum and natural gas are numerous and include industrial chemicals, household chemicals, fertilizers, and paints, as well as intermediates for the manufacture of products, such as synthetic rubber and plastics.  
4、从石油和天然气组分中生产化学产品或化学中间产品极好地证明了这些物质能够转换成更有价值的产品。从石油和天然气提取的单个化学产品数量众多;包括工业产品、家庭用品、化肥、油漆、以及用于生产其他产品的中间产品,如合成橡胶和塑料。
 manufacture of chemicals =化学产品的生产;Manufacture= 生产; chemical化学产品; chemical intermediates=化学中间产品,chemical化学的, intermediate中间的; from=从;Petroleum=石油; Natural gas=天然气; constituent=组分; excellent=极好的; example=例子; conversion=转变;such=这样的; material=物质; more valuable products=更有价值的产品,valuable 值钱的; product产品; The individual chemicals=单个化学产品,individual 个体; made from=由...制造油;Petroleum=石油; Natural gas=天然气; numerous=为数众多的; include=包括;industrial=工业的;chemical化学产品;household=家庭的;chemical化学产品; fertilizer=肥料; paint=油漆;as well as=和 intermediate=中间的,这里指中间产品; manufacture=生产;product=产品; such as=如;synthetic rubber=合成橡胶,synthetic合成的,rubber橡胶; plastic=塑料制品  
  5. The processing of petroleum hydrocarbon to yield materials that are, essentially, the building blocks of other chemicals industries, is now very extensive.
5、石油碳氢化合物通过加工所生产的物质,基本上是其他化学工业的预制品,这种加工目前范围十分广泛。
process=加工; petroleum hydrocarbon=石油碳氢化合物, Petroleum=石油,hydrocarbon碳氢化合物。 yield=生产; material=物质; essentially=基本上; building blocks=预制品,build 建造,block建材;other chemicals industries=其他化学工业, industry工业; extensive=广泛的
  6. Petrochemicals are generally chemical compounds derived from petroleum either by direct manufacture or by indirect manufacture as by-products from the variety of processes that are used during the refining of petroleum. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oils, Lubricating oils, waxes, asphalts, and the like are excluded from the definition of petrochemicals, since they are not, in the true sense, chemical compounds but are in fact intimate mixtures of hydrocarbons.  
6、石化产品一般指直接或间接地从石油中提炼的化合物,这些化合物往往是石油炼制各种过程中产生的副产品。汽油、煤油、燃料油、润滑油、石蜡、沥青以及诸如此类的产品不属于石化产品。因为,从严格意义上说,它们不是化合物,而是烃类的均质混合物。
 6. Petrochemical=石化产品; generally=一般; chemical compound=化合物, chemical化学的,compound混合物; derived from=得自; Petroleum=石油;either...or=...或...; by direct=直接 manufacture=生产,这里指提炼;indirect=间接的; as =因为;by-products=副产品; the variety of processes=各种过程,process过程; during =在...期间;refine=炼油:petroleum=石油; Gasoline=(美)汽油, kerosene=煤油; fuel oil=燃料油,fuel 燃料; Lubricating oil=润滑油,lubricate润滑; wax=蜡; asphalt=沥青; exclude=将…排除在外;definition=定义;petrochemical=石化产品;since =因此;not...but...=不是...而是,true=真正的;sense=意义, chemical compound=化合物, chemical化学的,compound混合物; in fact=实际上;intimate mixture=均质混合物,intimate=亲密的; mixture=混合物; hydrocarbon=碳氢化合物;.  

  7. The classification of materials such as petrochemicals is used to indicate the source of the chemical compounds, but it should be remembered that many common petrochemicals can be made from other sources, and the terminology is therefore a matter of source identification.
7、象“石化产品”这样的物质分类用来表明化合物的来源。但应记住,许多我们所熟知的石化产品也可以通过其他途径生产,因而这一名称只是用来识别原料。
The classification of materials=物质的分类,classification 分类, material物质, such as=如; Petrochemical=石化产品;use=使用;indicate=表明; source=来源;chemical compound=化合物, chemical化学的,compound混合物;remember=记住; many=许多;common=一般的; Petrochemical=石化产品;be made from=由...所做成的;source=来源; terminology=术语; therefore=因此; matter =物质; source=来源; identification=识别.
  
8. The starting materials for the petrochemical industry are obtained from crude petroleum in one of two general ways. They may be present in the virgin petroleum and as such, are isolated by physical methods, such as distillation or solvent extraction. On the other hand, they may be present in trace amounts and are synthesized during the refining operations. In fact, unsaturated hydrocarbons, which are not usually present in virgin petroleum, are nearly always manufactured as intermediates during the various refining sequences.
8、石化工业的初始原料大概通过一到两种方法从原油中提取。这些原料物质,也许本身就存在于原油当中,因此通过物理方法加以分离,如蒸馏和溶取。同时,这些物质也可能因含量低而在炼制作业中生成了合成物。实际上,原油中一般不存在非饱和烃,几乎所有的非饱和烃都是在各种炼制过程中作为中间产品而产生的。
 The starting materials=初始原料,materials原料;Petrochemical industry=石化工业;obtain=获得; crude Petroleum=原油,crude 未加工的; one of two general ways=二种常规方法的当中一种,general常规; present=存在的; virgin=原始的; Petroleum=石油; as such=同样地; isolate=分离; by =由;physical method=物理的方法; such as=如; distillation=蒸馏; or solvent extraction=溶取,solvent溶解的,extraction取出; On the other hand=另一方面; present=存在的; trace amount=“痕量”,极微量的,常规检测方法几乎检测不出的。Synthesize=合成; during the refining operations=炼制工艺期间,operation工艺; In fact=实际上; unsaturated hydrocarbons=非饱和烃,unsaturated非饱和; usually=通常; present=存在的; virgin原始的;petroleum=.石油; nearly=几乎; manufacture=生产; intermediate=中间的,这里指中间产品; the various refining=各种炼制;sequence=结果

  9. The manufacture of chemicals from petroleum is based on the ready response of the various compound types to basic chemical reactions, such as oxidation, halogenation, nitration, dehydrogenation, addition, polymerization, and alkylation. The low-molecular-weight paraffins and olefins, as found in natural gas and refinery gases, and the simple aromatic hydrocarbons have so far been of the most interest because it is these individual species that can readily be isolated and dealt with. A wide range of compounds is possible, many are being manufactured, and we are now progressing the stage in which a sizable group of products is being prepared from the heavier fractions of petroleum. For example, the various reactions of petroleum heavy ends, in particular the asphaltenes, indicate that these materials may be regarded as chemical entities and are able to participate in numerous chemical or physical conversions to, perhaps, more useful materials. The overall effect of these modifications is the production of materials that either afford good-grade aromatic cokes comparatively easily or the formation of products bearing functional groups that may be employed as a nonfuel material.
9、从石油生产化学品的依据是各种类型的化合物对各种基本的化学作用感应迅速,如氧化作用、卤化作用、硝化作用、脱氢作用、添加作用、聚合作用和烷基化作用。迄今为止,人们最感兴趣的是从天然气和炼厂气中所得到的低分子量石蜡和稀烃,以及简单芳烃,因为这些物质能够进行迅速分离和处理。大量化合物都有望得到、其中许多化合物正在生产。目前我们正在探索如何从石油的重质馏分中提炼数量可观的产品。比如,石油重质尾部馏分,尤其是沥青质的各种反应表明这些物质可以看成化学本质,也许能够通过各种化学和物理反应转变成更有价值的产品。这些变化的总体效应是,所生产的物质,或者能够相对容易地提供高品质芳焦,或者能够形成功能族产品,用作非燃料材料。
manufacture=生产; chemical=化学品; Petroleum=石油; base on=基于; ready=迅速的;response=反应; various=各种各样的; compound=化合物;type=类型; basic=基本的;chemical reaction=化学反应,reaction反应; such as=如: oxidation=氧化(作用); halogenation=卤化(作用); nitration=硝化(作用);dehydrogenation=脱氢作用; addition=添加(作用); polymerization=聚合(作用); and alkylation=烷基化作用; low-molecular-weight=低分子量; paraffin=石蜡; olefin=烯烃 ; Natural gas=天然气; refinery gases=炼厂气,refinery炼厂; the simple aromatic hydrocarbons=简单芳烃,aromatic hydrocarbon芳烃,aromatic芬芳的,hydrocarbon烃, 碳氢化合物; so far=迄今为止; the most interest=最感兴趣的;because=因为;individual=个体;species=种类; readily=容易地; isolate=分离; deal with=处理; A wide range of compounds=大范围化合物,wide广阔的,range范围,compound化合物;possible=可能的;many =许多,代指前面提到的石化产品;manufacture=生产; progress=发展;stage=阶段; a sizable group of products=数量可观的产品,sizable 相当大的,a group of 一群,product产品; prepare=着手做; heavier fraction=重质馏分,heavier沉重的,fraction馏分;petroleum=石油; For example=例如; the various reactions=各种反应,various各种各样的,reaction反应, Petroleum=石油;heavy ends=重质尾馏部分,in particular=特别的; the asphaltene=沥青质;indicate=表明; material=物质; regard as =把...认作;chemical=化学物;entity=(有别于属性等的)本质; are able to=能; participate in=参与;numerous=众多的;chemical or physical conversions=化学的或物理的变化, physical物理的,conversion变化; perhaps=也许, more useful materials=更有用的原料,material原料; The overall effect of these modifications=这些变化的总体效应,overall总体上 ,effect效果;modification修改; the production of materials=生产的物质,production生产;either ...or...=...或...; afford=提供; good-grade=高品质,grade等级; aromatic cokes=芳焦,aromatic芬芳的,coke焦炭; comparatively=相对的; easily=容易;formation形成 ;product=产品; bearing =孕育;functional groups =功能族,functional功能的; employ=使用; as=做为 nonfuel material=非燃料材料,nonfuel非燃
it is these individual[n.个人,个体] species[n.种] that can readily be isolated[(isolate):v.使隔离,使孤立] and dealt[(deal):n.量;数额  v.应付;处理] with.这是it is....that句型,其中that引导的是主语从句。
many are being manufactured,being manufactured是现在分词manufacturing的被动语态
a sizable group of products is being prepared... ,being prepared是现在分词preparing的被动语态
10. For example, the sulfonated and sulfomethlated materials and their derivatives have satisfactorily undergone tests as drilling mud thinners, and the results are comparable to those obtained with commercial mud thinners. In addition, these compounds may also find use as emulsifiers for the in situ recovery of heavy oils. There are also indications that these materials and other similar derivatives of the asphaltenes, especially those containing such functions as carboxylic or hydroxyl, readily exchange cations and could well compete with synthetic zeolites. Other uses of the hydroxyl derivatives and / or the chloroasphaltenes include high-temperature packings or heat transfer media.  
10、比如,将磺化物质、磺甲基化物质及其衍生物作为钻井泥浆稀料进行测试,效果令人满意,其应用效果可以同商业泥浆稀料相媲美。此外,这些化合物也可用作重油初采的乳化剂。另有迹象表明,这些物质和沥青质的其它类似衍生物,尤其是具有诸如羧基和羟基功能的物质,能够迅速地交换阳离子,并且同沸石形成有力抗衡。羟基和/或含氯沥青的衍生物的其他用途包括用作高温包装材料和热传递介质。
For example=例如;sulfonated=磺化的; sulfomethlated=磺甲基; material=物质;derivative=衍生物; satisfactorily=令人满意的; undergo=经历;test=试验; as=做为; drilling mud thinners=钻井泥浆稀料,drill钻井,mud泥浆,稀释剂; result=结果; comparable with=比得上的....;obtain=获得; commercial=商业; mud=泥浆; thinner=稀料. In addition=另外,addition加法; compound=化合物; find...for=对....有利 ;use=用途; as=做为; emulsifier=乳化剂; the in situ recovery[n.重获;痊愈,恢复] of heavy oils=重油初采,in situ在(施工)现场, recovery重获(利用),heavy oil重油; indication=迹象; material=物质;other similar=其他类似; derivatives of the asphaltenes=沥青质的衍生物,derivative衍生物,asphaltene沥青质, especially=尤其; contain=包含; such as=如; function=功能 ;carboxylic=[化]羧基的; hydroxyl=【化】羟基; readily=迅速地; exchange=交换; cation=阳离子; well=良好; compete with=对抗;synthetic=合成的;zeolite=沸石; Other uses=其他用途;hydroxyl derivatives and / or the chloroasphaltenes=羟基和/或含氯沥青的衍生物,hydroxyl【化】羟基,derivative衍生物, chloroasphaltene氯沥青; include=包括;high-temperature=高温,temperature温度; packing=包装;heat transfer media=热传递介质, heat transfer传热,transfer传递,media介质;.
...could well compete with synthetic zeolites,(羧基和羟基功能的物质在迅速交换阳离子的性能方面)远远胜过人造沸石
重油:也就是原油经提炼后剩下的,仅仅比沥青稍高一级的燃油,添加20%左右的水,以及少量乳化剂,经过物理和化学的反应后,成为2.5微米以下油包水的细小颗粒,这种经过乳化的重油,在燃烧过程中,由于微爆效应等原理,使其雾化更优良、燃烧更充分,可以充当锅炉、冶金等工业的燃料,同时能节省20%左右的燃料消耗,并且比直接燃烧重油更环保;
重油乳化剂:是经过化学反应合成的液态物质,具有特殊的表面活性,亲水性极强,在水中溶解迅速,通过简单乳化工艺或专用设备能够使水和重油瞬间乳化
乳化重油工艺简介:
乳化重油专供燃烧油单位,应用于柴油车、轮船、发电厂、锅炉等行业。
三、使用方法:
重油乳化剂添加比例:重油80%水10-20%剂0.1%
具体使用方法:
A、 按配比将重油抽入反应罐中,
B、 保持温度60-80度,
C、 开始搅拌
D、 将所需配比的水加热到60-80度,
E、同 时按比例放入添加重油乳化剂充分混匀,
F、 抽入反应罐中
G、 搅拌30分钟,
H、 直至油、水、添加剂融为一体即可使用
I、 在乳化重油使用过程中,
J、 应使温度保持在60-80度直到用完。
 
 11. Reactions incorporating nitrogen and phosphorus into the asphaltenes are particularly significant at a time when the effects on the environment of many materials containing these elements are receiving considerable attention. Various measures have been and will be taken to release such effects.
11、将氮气和磷混合成沥青的化学反应尤为重要,因为含有这些元素的物质对环境造成的影响正受到严重关注。人们已经且还要采取各种措施来减少这些影响。
 Reaction=反应;incorporate ...into...=合并; nitrogen=氮;phosphorus=磷; asphaltene沥青质; particularly=特别的; significant=重要的; at a time=同时, effect on=对...有影响; environment=环境; material=物质;contain=包含;element=元素; receive=受到; considerable=相当多的;attention=关注; Various measures=各种措施,Various各种各样的,measure措施; take=采取; release=免除; effect=影响
   氮气和磷能混合成沥青吗?从网上查看,只有这篇文章的翻译这样提到这点。
  12. Nevertheless, the main objective in producing chemicals from petroleum is the formation of a variety of well-defined chemical compounds that are the basis of the petrochemical industry. It must be remembered, however, that ease of separation of a particular compound from petroleum does not guarantee its use as a petrochemical building block. Other parameters, particularly the economics of the reaction sequences, including the costs of the reactant equipment, must also be taken into consideration.  
  12、不过,从石油生产化学制品的主要目的在于,生产出大量具有明确界定的化合物,以奠定石化工业的基础。但是必须清楚,如果某种化合物能够容易地从石油中分离出来,并不表明它一定就是石化产品的预制品。其它因素,尤其是生产这些化合物的经济因素,包括反应设备的成本,必须考虑在内。
Nevertheless=不过;main=主要的; objective=目的; chemical=化学品; Petroleum=石油; formation=形成 ; a variety of=多种的[n.多样化;种类]  well-defined=定义明确的; chemical=化学物; compound=化合物; basis=基础; Petrochemical industry=石油化学工业; remember=记得, however=可是; ease=容易; separation=分离;;(a) particular=(某)一项; compound=化合物; Petroleum=石油; guarantee=保证; use as =做为...的用途;a petrochemical building block=石化产品的预制品;parameter=<口>起限定作用的因素; particularly=尤其; economics=经济;reaction=【化学】 反应;sequence=后果;include=包括; cost=成本 ;reactant=反应物;equipment=设备; taken into consideration=重视 [n.考虑].  

一. in,on在方位名词前的区别
1. in表示A地在B地范围之内。如:
Taiwan is in the southeast of China.
2. on表示A地与B地接壤、毗邻。如:
North Korea is on the east of China.
二. at, in, on在表示时间上的区别
1. at指时间表示:
(1)时间的一点、时刻等。如:
They came home at sunrise (at noon, at midnight, at ten o’clock, at daybreak, at dawn).
(2)较短暂的一段时间。可指某个节日或被认为是一年中标志大事的日子。如:
He went home at Christmas (at New Year, at the Spring Festival, at night).
2. in指时间表示:
(1)在某个较长的时间(如世纪、朝代、年、月、季节以及泛指的上午、下午或傍晚等)内。如:
in 2004, in March, in spring, in the morning, in the evening, etc
(2)在一段时间之后。一般情况下,用于将来时,谓语动词为瞬间动词,意为“在……以后”。如:
He will arrive in two hours.
谓语动词为延续性动词时,in意为“在……以内”。如:
These products will be produced in a month.
注意:after用于将来时间也指一段时间之后,但其后的时间是“一点”,而不是“一段”。如:
He will arrive after two o’clock.
3. on指时间表示:
(1)具体的时日和一个特定的时间,如某日、某节日、星期几等。如:
On Christmas Day(On May 4th), there will be a celebration.
(2)在某个特定的早晨、下午或晚上。如:
He arrived at 10 o’clock on the night of the 5th.
(3)准时,按时。如:
If the train should be on time, I should reach home before dark.
三. at, in和on表示地点时的区别
1. at表示地点:
(1)用于指较小的地方。如:
I shall wait for you at the station.
(2)用于门牌号码前。如:
He lives at 115 Zhongshan Road.
2. in表示地点:
(1)用于指较大的地方。如:
He lives in Shanghai.
(2)虽然是很小的地方,如果说话人住在那里,也可用in。商店、学校、机关等,若看作一个地点(point)用at,若看作一个场所(place)用in。如:
I met him at the post-office.
I’m now working in the post-office.
3. on表示地点,一般指与面或线接触,意为“在……上;在……旁”。如:
The picture was hanging on the wall.
New York is on the Hudson River.

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