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中国石油天然气集团公司职称考试模拟试题(四)3

(2010-01-03 19:55:44)
标签:

教育

分类: 中石油职称英语考试

Questions 49 to 52 are based on the following passage:

    In science the meaning of the word “explain” suffers with civilization’s every step in search of reality. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first looked into the nature of the electrification of amber, a hard yellowish-brown gum.

    Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces “really” are. “Electricity,” Bertrand Russell says, “is not a thing, like St. Paul’s Cathedral; it is a way in which things behave. When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, and under what circumstances they are electrified, we have told all there is to tell.” Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles. He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that’s where they belong, and smoke goes up because that’s where it belongs. The goal of Aristotelian science was to explain why things happen. Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation.

49. The aim of controlled scientific experiments is         .

A. to explain why things happen

B. to explain how things happen

C. to describe self-evident principles

D. to support Aristotelian science     

【答案】B

50. What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thousand years?         

A. the speculations of Thales

B. the forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity

C. Aristotle’s natural science

D. Galileo’s discoveries     

【答案】C

51. Bertrand Russell’s notion about electricity is         .

A. disapproved of by most modern scientists

B. in agreement with Aristotle’s theory of self-evident principles

C. in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward “how” things happen

D. in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward “why” things happen     

【答案】C

52. Modern science came into being         .

A. when the method of controlled experiment was first introduced

B. when Galileo succeeded in explaining how things happen

C. when Aristotelian scientist tried to explain why things happen

D. when scientists were able to acquire an understanding of reality of reasoning     

【答案】A

Questions 53 to 56 are based on the following passage:

    The U.S. birthrate began to decline in the middle 1950’s, resulting in a smaller college age population starting in the middle 1970’s.S4 Something else happened in the 1970’s: the price of oil increased tremendously, driving up the price of almost everything and making Americans aware that their large automobiles used a lot of gasoline. At the same time, foreign car manufacturers had begun to produce small fuel efficient cars in large quantities for the export market. Suddenly, the large, gas guzzling American cars were no longer attractive to American buyers, who began buying foreign cars by the thousands. The American automobile industry went into a recession. Thousands of automotive workers were laid off, as were thousands of people in industries indirectly connected with the auto industry. People who are laid off tend to keep what money they have for necessities, like food and housing. They do not have the extra money needed to send their children to college. Their children cannot pay their own college costs, because during a recession they cannot find jobs. High unemployment means that more state funds must be used for social service—unemployment benefits and to aid dependent children, for example—than during more prosperous times. It also means, that the states have fewer funds than usual, because people are paying fewer taxes. Institutions of higher education depend on two major sources of income to keep them functioning: tuition from students and funds from the states. At the present time, there are fewer students than in the past and fewer state funds available for higher education. The colleges and universities are in trouble.

53. What is the main idea of this passage?

A. The rising of oil price drove up the price of everything.

B. There were many reasons why higher education was in trouble in the 1970’s.

C. Birthrate began to decline in the USA in 1950’s.

D. High unemployment caused a lot of social problems.     

【答案】B

54. The phrase “laid off” can best be replaced by which of the following?         

A. Poor.   B. Got rid of   C. Removed.   D. Unemployed     

【答案】D

55. American cars were not popular in their domestic markets because they were         .

A. small   B. gas consuming   C. fuel efficient   D. not attractive     

【答案】B

56. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT         .

A. young people couldn’t afford their own tuition in the 1970’s

B. it’s difficult for graduates from colleges to find a job in the 1970’s

C. fewer parents could afford to send their children to college because of the recession in 1970’s

D. Birthrate dropped in the 1970’s because of the recession     

【答案】D

Questions 57 to 60 are based on the following passage:

    It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without memory. The meanings of thousands of everyday perceptions, the basis for the decisions we make, and the roots of our habits and skills are to be found in our past experiences, which are brought into the present by memory.

    Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use. It includes not only “remembering” things like arithmetic or historical facts, but also involves any change in the way an animal typically behaves. Memory is involved when a rat gives up eating grain because he has sniffed (嗅出) something suspicious in the grain pile.

    Memory exists not only in humans and animals but also in some physical objects and machines. Computers, for example, contain devices for storing data for later use. It is interesting to compare the memory storage capacity of a computer with that of a human being. The instant access memory of a large computer may hold up to 100,000 “words”— string of alphabetic or numerical characters — ready for instant use. An average U.S. teenager probably recognizes the meaning of about 100,000 words of English. However, this is but a fraction of the total amount of information that the teenager has stored. Consider, for example, the number of faces and places that the teenager can recognize on sight.

    The use of words is the basis of the advanced problem-solving intelligence of human beings. A large part of a person’s memory is in terms of words and combinations of words. But while language greatly expands the number and kind of things a person can remember, it also requires a huge memory capacity. It may well be this capacity that distinguishes humans, setting them apart from other animals.

57. Which of the following is true about memory?         

A. It helps us perceive things happening around us every day.

B. It is based on the decisions we made in the past.

C. It is rooted in our past habits and skills.

D. It connects our past experiences with the present.     

【答案】D

58. According to the passage, memory is helpful in one’s life in the following aspects EXCEPT that         .

A. it involves a change in one’s behavior

B. it keeps information for later use

C. it warns people not to do things repeatedly

D. it enables one to remember events that happened in the past     

【答案】C

59. What is the major characteristic of man’s memory capacity according to the author?         

A. It can be expanded by language.

B. It can remember all the combined words.

C. It may keep all the information in the past.

D. It may change what has been stored in it.     

【答案】A

60. Human beings make themselves different from other animals by         .

A. having the ability to perceive danger

B. having a far greater memory capacity

C. having the ability to recognize faces and places on sight

D. having the ability to draw on past experiences     

【答案】B

Section B

Directions: There are 10 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark you answer on the Answer Sheet.

    Shopping habits in the United States have changed greatly in the last quarter of the 20th century. ( 61 ) in the 1900s most American towns and cities had a Main Street. Main Street was always in the heart of a town. This street was lined on both sides with many various businesses. Here, shoppers walked into stores to look at all sorts of merchandise: clothing, furniture, hardware, groceries. ( 62 ), some shops offered services. These shops included drugstores, restaurants, shoe repair stores, and barber or hairdressing shops. But in the 1950s, a change began to ( 63 ). Too many automobiles had crowded into Main Street while too few parking places were ( 64 ) shoppers. Because the streets were crowded, merchants began to look with interest at the open spaces ( 65 ) the city limits. Open space is what their car driving customers needed. And open space is what they got when the first shopping centre was built. Shopping centers, or rather malls, ( 66 ) as a collecting of small new stores away from crowded city centers. ( 67 ) by hundreds of free parking space, customers were drawn away from downtown areas to outlying malls. And the growing ( 68 ) of shopping centers led in turn to the building of bigger and better stocked stores. ( 69 ) the late 1970s, many shopping malls had almost developed into small cities themselves. In addition to providing the ( 70 ) of one stop shopping, malls were transformed into landscaped parks, with benches, fountains and outdoor entertainment.

61.  A. As early as      B. Early      C. Early as      D. Earlier     

【答案】B

【解析】as early as的意思为“同…一样早”, early是副词,“早期”的意思,earlier是比较级“较早”的意思。

62.  A. Apart from      B. However      C. In addition      D. As well     

【答案】C

【解析】本句的意思是“除了各种各样的商店销售各种各样的商品之外,有些商店还提供服务”,apart from意为“除此之外”,后必须接名词或动名词,however是连词“然而”的意思,in addition可单独使用,意为“除此之外”,as well用在句末。

63. A. be taking place      B. take place      C. be taken place      D. have taken place     

【答案】B

【解析】take place只有主动语态,故可排除C,而begin to后应接动词不定式,只有take place“发生”可用。

64. A. available for      B. available to      C. used by      D. ready for     

【答案】B

【解析】be available to sb.为固定搭配,意为“对某人来说可用的,可得到的”,本句意为“顾客可用的停车场地”,故选B。

65.   A. over      B. from      C. out of      D. outside     

【答案】D

【解析】本句意为“商人们开始对城市界限以外的开阔地感兴趣”,out of表示“…的外面”而outside指“超过某一个界限,范围等”。

66.  A. started      B. founded      C. set up      D. organized     

【答案】A

【解析】本句的意思是“购物中心是从聚集一些小的店铺开始的”,只有started as有此

67.  A. Attracted      B. Surprised      C. Delighted      D. Enjoyed     

【答案】A

【解析】本句意为“被…所吸引”,surprise意为“使…惊奇”,delight意为“使…喜悦”,enjoy意为“欣赏, 喜爱”。

68.   A. distinction      B. fame      C. popularity      D. liking     

【答案】C

【解析】本句意为“这些购物中心越来越大的名气反过来导致了更大,设备更好的商店的建成”。distinction声望;fame卓越,好名声;popularity名气很大,知名度很高;liking喜爱,喜好。故选C。

69.     A. By      B. During      C. In      D. Towards     

【答案】A

【解析】在这四个选项中,只有by所组成的时间状语与完成时连用,意为“到…为止”, 其他三个选项均被排除。

70.    A. cheapness      B. readiness      C. convenience      D. handiness     

【答案】C

【解析】这里convenience与providing组成短语“提供方便,便利”,符合上下文义。

Ⅳ. Translation

Directions: There is 1 passage in this part of the test. You are to translate the passages into Chinese on your Answer Sheet.

71.

    Again, at one time or another, you may have found that all such animals hear. Hunters know that ducks are attracted by artificial calls during hunting seasons, and fishermen emphasize that you should be as quiet as possible if you don't want to go home empty handed. Deer hunting will also prove that being quiet on your approach is of utmost importance. Moreover, it seems absurd that birds should sing and frogs croak, if they could not even hear their own voices.

    By many experiments, biologists have discovered that practically all animals have some sense of hearing or vibration. Earthworms feel vibrations in the soil, which is why birds often peck the ground sending vibrations into the ground simulating rain drops to lure them to the surface. Male mosquitoes are attracted by the sound of the female, and frogs will respond to a tape recording of their own voices.

    Scientists must explore much further for more knowledge about how animals use their ears.  

  此外,你可能曾经发现所有的这些动物都在听。猎人们知道在狩猎季度野鸭会被人造的声音所吸引,渔夫们则强调,如果你不想空手而归的话就要尽可能的安静。猎鹿活动也说明了安静地接近猎物是极为重要的。再说,青蛙在叫,鸟儿在唱,如果它们甚至听不到自己发出的声音,岂不荒谬。

  通过许多试验,生物学家已经发现,实际上所有的动物都具有某种听觉或振动感。蚯蚓在土壤里能感觉震动,这就是为什么鸟类常常会啄食地面,传送类似雨滴的震动到地下,吸引它们到地面的原因。雄性蚊子可以被雌性蚊子的声音所吸引,青蛙对它们自己的声音的录音有所反应。

  科学家们必须进行更加深入地探讨才能够对动物如何应用它们的耳朵获得更多的知识。

注:(文章来源 15 How Animals Hear 动物如何听到声音,第5,6段,有改动)

本题为主观题,无法自动判分,请人工为此题给分。

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