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常见词语搭配(一)

(2009-03-23 07:19:45)
标签:

词语搭配

教育

分类: (00600)高级英语

(学习英语朋友们都会有这样的体会:有时候很想用一个单词,可是偏偏不清楚(或是想不起来)它应当和什么词搭配,于是只好忍痛割爱。所以狒狒在这里略微总结了一些常见的名词的搭配,包括和这个名词搭配的形容词以及动词,以连载的形式贴出来,希望能起到抛砖引玉的作用,对大家有所帮助。

本文在写作过程中,参考了《常用词搭配》、《大学英语语法详解》以及诸多词典,在此向作者表示感谢!

1. Ability

这恐怕是人人都认识的了,通常一看到这个词,我们往往会想起这样的搭配:have the ability to do sth.,没错,和have搭配是正确的用法,但是,你是否经常使用下面这些搭配呢?

1)show/display/exhibit:展示、显示

e.g. The girls displayed their great ability in singing and dancing at last night’s party.

2)develop:发展

e.g. In order to develop George’s organizing ability, Mr. Johnson appointed him monitor of the class. (注意这里的monitor前面不能加冠词哦!因为动词短语appoint是这样要求的)

3)doubt:怀疑

e.g. I have never doubted your ability to finish your job on time.

和ability搭配的形容词:

all-round (多方面的)

average (一般的)

 

2. Advice

说到这个词,大家首先想起的应该是give advice to sb.了吧?对,这是advice的一个常见用法,即“给予……意见”,下面让我们来看看advice与其他动词的搭配(切记advice是不可数名词):

1)seek:征求

e.g. He sought(注意seek的过去式形式) advice from his father about what job he should choose after graduation.

2)adopt/take/follow:采纳、听从(这可是很有用的表达法哦!)

e.g. It is not good for you to be so stubborn, try taking advice from others.

3)ignore:不考虑、置之不理

e.g. He ignored my advice, because he thought it would not work.

和advice搭配的形容词:

unpleasant but kind-hearted(很有用哦!意思是逆耳的忠言)

sensible(明智的)

expert(专家的)

 

3. Age

这个词也是我们常见的,通常我们都会用ask sb’s age,即询问某人的年龄,同时这个词还可以这样搭配:

1)divulge:透露

e.g. She refused to divulge her age.

2)come of age:成年

e.g. When you come of age, you will be allowed to vote at various elections.

3)reach:到达

e.g. When a man has reached 40, he has reached middle age.

和age搭配的形容词:

mental(心理的)

voting(投票的)

marriageable(适婚的)

 

4. Attention

见到这个词,大家首先想起的搭配应该是pay attention to吧,其实,attention这个词还可以和以下的动词搭配:

1)arouse one’s attention:引起某人的注意

e.g. The serious problem has aroused public attention.

2)distract one’s attention:分散某人的注意力

e.g. Don’t let video games distract your attention.

3)draw one’s attention to:引起某人对……的注意

e.g. The teacher drew our attention to the problem of juvenile delinquency.

和attention搭配的形容词:

pay close attention(密切的)

pay full attention(充分的)

pay further attention(进一步的)

 

5. Attitude

这个词是“态度”的意思,通常有以下搭配方法:

1)maintain:保持

e.g. I advise you to maintain the present attitude towards him until he tells you the truth.

2)adopt/assume:采取

e.g. No one likes him as he always assumes an attitude of superiority.

3)make one’s attitude clear:表明态度

e.g. We made our attitude clear by voting unanimously against the motion.

4)show/display/exhibit:表现出

e.g. When I asked them for their opinions, they all showed an attitude of indifference.

和attitude搭配的形容词;

optimistic(乐观的)

pessimistic(悲观的)

sympathetic(同情的)

open-minded(开明的)

 

6.audience

首先要注意这是个不可数名词,所以不要在后面加上s了。有以下搭配:

1) address:向……演说

这里的address是及物动词,所以不用加介词。

e.g. He will address an audience of about 5,000 tonight.

2) draw:吸引了

e.g. Professor Johnson’s lecture has drawn a large audience.

3) move:感动

e.g. The audience were all moved to tears.

4) applaude:拍手、鼓掌

e.g. The audience all applauded him for his courage.

和audience搭配的形容词:

attentive(专心的)

cynical(爱讥讽的)

enchanted(着了迷的)

frenzied(疯狂的)

hostile(不友好的)

listless(无精打采的)

unresponsive(没有反应的)

 

7.baby

这个词虽然简单,但是要掌握它的各种搭配却是不容易的,狒狒以前就知道个have a baby,下面就让我们来看看还有别的什么搭配:

1) lull/rock/sing a baby to sleep:哄/轻摇/唱歌使婴儿入睡

相信大家小时候都被这样子哄过吧?:)来看个例句:

e.g. Janet usually lulls her baby to sleep by singing to it and rocking the cradle.

怎么样,三个词都用上了吧?

2) feed:喂

e.g. It is not good enough for mothers to feed their babies on milk powder.

3) hold in one’s arms:抱在怀里

e.g. It is Mr. James who held the baby in his arms.

4) christen:进行洗礼并给予教名

这是一个在中国不太常用的意思,但是外国比较普遍,所以我们还是来了解一下。

e.g. They christened their baby James.

和baby搭配的形容词:

abandoned(弃婴)

new-born(新生的)

cute(惹人喜欢的)

 

8.banquet

这个词之所以会让许多人感到不熟悉,一是因为它的读音比较奇特,二是它也不好拼写。很多时候我们都不会想起来去用它,下面介绍它的搭配:

1) give/hold:举行

这是最常见的用法

e.g. We will give a farewell banquet to our English teacher, for he is going to retire nest semester.

2) attend:出席

e.g. I attended John’s wedding banquet last night.

3) serve:设宴

e.g. The president served a welcome banquet when the delegation came.

4) be entertained:被款待

这是entertain的一个不太常见的用法

e.g. I was hospitably entertained at a birthday banquet in the Grand Hotel.

和banquet搭配的形容词:

magnificient(盛大的)

handsome(排场十足的)

swank(炫耀的)

 

9.belief

说到这个词,相信大家第一个想起的就是hold the belief…吧?其实,belief还可以有以下一些搭配:

1) shake:动摇

e.g. No difficulty or temptation has ever shaken his full belief in God.(注意对……的信仰要用belief in sth.)

2) follow:遵循

如果别人有什么信仰,你也跟着他有同样的信仰,那么就可以说是follow the belief of sb.

e.g.. Most children follow the belief of their parents.

3) discard/give up背弃、放弃

前面这个discard比较正式一些,而give up则是我们日常生活中用得较多的。

e.g. Henry discarded his belief in Darwinism after he became a Christian.

和belief搭配的形容词:

deep-rooted(根深蒂固的)

wide-spread(普遍的)

unshakable(不可动摇的)

 

10.benefit

这个词的意思是“利益”、“好处”、“恩惠”,因此,这些好东西自然多和“得到”、“获得”搭配了:

1) derive/obtain/gain/get:获得

e.g. He has derived a lot of benefit from reading.

2) give:给予(好处有时候还是要分享的嘛:))

e.g. My parents give me the benefit of a foreign education.

3) enjoy:享受

e.g. Since we are in the same grade, we enjoy the same fringe benefits.(这里fringe benefits是“附加福利“的意思)

 

11.bicycle

这个词也是很常见的一个,一提到它,相信大家首先想到的就是ride a bicycle这个短语了。其实,它还可以和很多动词搭配:

1) hire:租

这个词大家一定也不陌生吧,因为现在中国的自行车出租业也比较发达了,许多城市都可以为游客提供自行车,大大地方便了我们的出行,下面狒狒就用亲身经历造个句子。

e.g. In the town of Fenghuang, you can hire a bicycle for ¥15 a day.

2) swerve:突然转变方向

这个词平日里也许见的不多,但是这件事情许多骑车的人都经历过。通常这个swerve多指因为要避开一些东西而做的急转。

e.g. The bicycle swerved at the corner and upset.

3) lose control of:失去控制

lose control of这个词很有用,不管什么事情,只要在你的驾驭范围之外,就可以说是lose control of sth.

e.g. He lost control of his bicycle and fell off.

4) pedal:踏

这个才是形象的骑车动作:)

e.g. He pedaled his bicycle slowly up the hill.

5) get on:上车

6) get off:下车(这两个就不用解释了吧)

由于用来修饰bicycle的形容词不多,并且也没有什么很大的意义,所以狒狒在这里就把它“大卸八块”,让我们一起来看看bicycle的各部分怎么说:

车架:bike frame

车架接头:pallet

龙头:handle-bar

龙头弯:handle-bar bend

握把:handle-bar grip

龙头柱:handle-bar stem

刹车棒:lever bar

刹车吊杆:plunger

吊杆接头:plunger arm

穿心螺丝:adapter lug

刹车钢条:plunger-rod

钢圈:steel rim

钢丝:steel wire

钢丝螺丝:spoke nipple

钢丝轴承:hub

轮轴:axle

弹珠槽:ball case

弹珠:steel ball

钢珠条:steel stick

钢珠网:bearing cup

顶珠螺丝:cone

垫圈:washer

加油嘴:lubricator

气门心:cycle valve

气门心帽:valve cap

挡泥板:mud-guards

挡泥胶皮:mud- flap

外胎:tire

内胎:inner tube

链条轮:chain wheel

飞轮:free wheel

脚踏板:pedal

坐垫:bike saddle

坐垫柱:seat pillar

灯架:lamp bracket

车头灯;head- light

车尾灯:tail-light

喇叭:bugle

喇叭胶球:horn bulb

喇叭响嘴:born reed

车铃:handle-bar bell

车锁:safety lock

气筒:inflator

撑架:stand

单脚架:prop stand

 

12.blame

这个词的基本意思是过失、责难,可以和下面的一些动词搭配:

1) put/place/lay/cast the blame on:归咎于

e.g. They put the blame for the failure on me.(注意,关于什么事情的过失,介词要用for)

2) take/bare:承受

e.g. I am not prepared to bear the blame due to others.

3) shift:转移

e.g. Don’t try to shift the blame onto me.

4) incur:招致

e.g. If you don’t do your job properly, you will surely incur blame.

5) fall:落在

e.g. All the blame falls on him.

同样,和blame搭配的形容词也没有几个。

 

13.blood

虽然大家都知道这是“血”的意思,可是“流血千万不要”说成flow the blood呀,因为有一个词bleed是专门讲流血的,只说bleed就可以了,也不要画蛇添足,加上个blood,变成bleed the blood:)。下面就来看看和它搭配的动词有哪些:

1) donate:捐献

donate你的blood给Red Cross是一件光荣的事情呀:)

2) transfuse:输

e.g. He offered to have his blood transfused into the wounded policeman.(注意这句里的have sth. Done的句型)

3) trickle down:一滴滴地流下

这可真是很形象的一个词

e.g. When she saw blood trickling down from her husband’s nose, she fainted.

和blood搭配的形容词:

of hot blood:热血的(“热血青年”自然就是a youth of hot blood啦)

in cold blood:冷血地,残忍地(在革命年代,也不乏a youth of blood被shot down in cold blood的事情呀)

 

14.boy

这个词好象再简单不过了,没有什么动词可以和它搭配,我们就来多多收集一些形容词,以便大家灵活使用:

bouncing:健康活泼的

cheeky:厚颜无耻的

chubby:胖得可爱的

dirty-minded:思想下流的(呵呵)

dull:呆板的

energetic:精力充沛的

husky:高大强壮的

incorrigible:无可救药的

lean:瘦但健康的

light-haired:金发的

mischievous:淘气顽皮的

muscular:肌肉发达的

naughty:没规矩的

reserved:感情不外露的

robust:健壮的

slovenly:不修边幅的

wayward:任性不羁的

以上只是一部分,以后我们讲到man的时候还会有更多的形容词。

 

15.breath

1) hold one’s breath:屏住呼吸

e.g. We held our breath as we watched the vampire walk closer and closer to the woman in bed.

2) take a breath:吸一口气

e.g. He took a deep breath before went into the interview room.

3) catch one’s breath:吸气,喘息

e.g. He was catching his breath after the race.

4) get one’s breath back:恢复正常呼吸

e.g. I need time to get my breath back after running so fast.

5) take breath:喘喘气

e.g. Half-way through the match, we asked for a pause to take breath.

和breath搭配的形容词:

deep(深呼吸)

 

16. building

这个词也是我们所熟悉的,但是,用什么动词呢来和它搭配呢?

1) demolish/pull down/tear down:拆除

demolish是完全拆除,而pull down和tear down则是一般性的拆除

e.g. Half the buildings in the street have been demolished to make way for the new park.

2) erect/put up:建立

这和上面的拆除正好相反。

e.g. These old buildings were put up in Victorian days.

3) evacuate:撤离

一般要evacuate的建筑物都是已经遭到了威胁的,比如火灾或洪水之类。注意这个结构的主语是building。

e.g. The building was evacuated because of the fire.

4) renovate:翻新

是指把building恢复到良好状态

e.g. It cost much to renovate old college buildings at our university.

和building搭配的形容词:

dilapidated(残破的)

high-rise(高楼大厦)

 

17. campaign

按我们的理解,campaign这个词好象一般多用于军事方面,或是指有很强的竞争性的活动,其实不然,很多时候campaign是做“运动”解释的。我们来看看它的用法:

1) launch:展开

要注意launch在这里不是“发射”的意思哦!

e.g. A courtesy campaign will be launched in our school next month. (courtesy campaign这里可译做“礼貌运动”)

2) organize:组织

e.g. I am responsible for organizing a publicity campaign.(我负责组织一个宣传运动)

3) conduct:进行

He is conducting a campaign to boost foreign films.

4) initiate:开始,发动

e.g. He initiated a campaign for the fund of a new school building.

和campaign搭配的形容词:

a fund-raising campaign(筹款运动,呵呵,筹款可是人民解放军的三大任务之一哦:))

a membership campaign(募集会员运动)

 

18. change

change这个词也是大家熟悉的,但是一般想得起来的恐怕都是make a change吧?下面就介绍一下和它搭配的动词:

1) bring about/effect:产生,带来

e.g. The death of John’s father has brought about some unfavorable changes in his family.

2) introduce:引进,介绍进来

e.g. The reform has introduced some dramatic changes to our society.

3) undergo:经历

e.g. China has undergone great changes in the past twenty years.

和change搭配的形容词:

abrupt(急变)

marked(显著的)

slight(微小的)

 

19. child

说起child来,大家首先想到的就是bring up a child了吧,呵呵,因为把孩子养大实在不是件容易事呀:),那么,下面的这些说法不妨也来看看吧:

1) spoil:宠坏,溺爱

e.g. You will spoil your child by giving him everything he asks for.

2) ill-treat:虐待

e.g. Children in broken families are more likely to be ill-treated.

3) carry…on one’s back:背着

e.g. He often carries his child on his back when he goes to market.

和child搭配的形容词:

illegitimate(私生子)

only(独生子)

thankless(忘恩负义的)

chubby(胖嘟嘟的)

 

20. clothes

clothes人人都有,大家也都知道put on clothes和take off clothes,但是,下面这些搭配你也许还不熟悉吧:

1) fold:折叠

e.g. Mom folds my clothes and puts them into my wardrobe every day.

2) hang out:挂出去晒

e.g. It is not difficult to find a place to hang out our clothes in the yard.

3) straighten one’s clothes:整理衣服,把衣服弄挺

e.g. The guy straightened his clothes before entering his girl friend’s house.

和clothes搭配的形容词:

plain(便服)

ragged/shabby(破旧的)

loose-fitting(宽松的)

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