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William James

The Principles of Psychology

Chapter 1

The Scope of Psychology

Psychology is the Science of Mental Life, both of its phenomena and of their conditions. The phenomena are such things as we call feelings, desires, cognitions, reasonings, decisions, and the like; and, superficially considered, their variety and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer. The most natural and consequently the earliest way of unifying the material was, first, to classify it as well as might be, and, secondly, to affiliate the diverse mental modes thus found, upon a simple entity, the personal Soul, of which they are taken to be so many facultative manifestations. Now, for instance, the S

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January 24, 2007 << back

Professor Paul Bloom: Okay. The last class we talked about the brain. Now we're going to talk a little bit about some foundations. So today and Monday we're going to talk about two very big ideas and these ideas are associated with Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner and are psychoanalysis and behaviorism. And I want to talk about psychoanalysis today and behaviorism next week.

Now, one of these things--One of the things that makes these theories so interesting is their scope. Most of the work we're going to talk about in this class--Most of the ideas are narrow. So, we're going to talk about somebody's idea about racial prejudice but that's not a theory of language acquisition. We'll talk about theories of schizophrenia but they're not explanations of sexual attractiveness

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So, you have neurons and they're clustered together and they fire and they communicate to one another. So, how does this all work to give rise to creatures who could do interesting things like talk and think? Well, again, it used to be believed that the brain is wired up like a computer, like a PC or a Mac or something like that, but we know this can't be true. It can't be true because there's two ways in which the brain is better than a computer. For one thing, the brain is highly resistant to damage. If you have a laptop and I persuade you to open it up for me and I take the pliers and kind of snip just about anywhere, your laptop will be destroyed but the brain is actually more resilient. You can take a lot of brain damage and still preserve some mental functioning. To some interesting sense, there's some sort of damage resistance built in to the brain that allows different parts of the brain to take over if some parts are damaged.

A second consideration is the brain is ex

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     Professor Paul Bloom: We're going to begin the class proper, Introduction to Psychology, with a discussion about the brain. And, in particular, I want to lead off the class with an idea that the Nobel Prize winning biologist, Francis Crick, described as 'The Astonishing Hypothesis.' And The Astonishing Hypothesis is summarized like this. As he writes, The Astonishing Hypothesis is that:

    保罗布罗姆教授:我们要开始上课了,心理学导论,关于对大脑的讨论。而且,特别的,我希望以诺贝尔生物学奖弗朗西斯克里克的“惊人的假说”来作为我们上课的开头。惊人的假说是这样总结的。他写道,惊人的假说是这样的:

    You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules. As Lewis Carroll's Alice might have phrased it, 'you're nothing but a pack of neurons.'

 

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Shramana :  Shramanas are disciples of Buddha.  Chinese sha-men ……….; also sang-men ………..; ho-shang ………….  Shramana means the “quieting of the passions”; in Chinese his-hsin 息心, restful, or to put the mind at rest, or chih-his止息, to stop the breath.  Bikshu (q.v) is one of the names given to the followers of Buddha generally.  Sha-men …………. Originated in Kashiapmadanga, “the most ancient of translators,” using sha-men ……………. in the “Sutra of Forty-two Sections,” and “thus originating that name, to be used ever after as the designation of the members of the Buddhist community in China” (Edkins, p.416).  The term is explained by ch’u-chia jen 出家人, lit, monastics, or by chin-lao ………….., lit, toiling, or as above.  Ascetics of all denominations.  Buddhist monks and priests who “have left their families and quitted the passions.” – See also Lo-han …………

Shramana沙门 : Shr

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Pratyeka Buddha : (Pali. Patiekan, Singh. Pase Buddha, Burm. Ptetzega. Tib. Rangs sang dschei. Mong. Pratikavudor Ovoro Torolkitu)…………………………… or ………………. explained by ………….lit. individually intelligent, or by ………….lit. completely intelligent, or by…………..lit. intelligent as regards the Nidanas.  A degree of saintship (unknown to primitive Buddhism), viewed as one of the 3 conveyances to Nirvana (v. Madhyimayana), and practiced by hermits who, as attaining to Ruddhaship individually (e.i. without teacher and without saving others), are compared with the Khadga and called Ekas’ringa richi.  As crossing Sansara, suppressing errors, and yet not attaining to absolute perfection, the Pratyeka Buddha is compared with a horse which crosses a river, swimming, without touching the ground.  Having mastered the 12 Nidanas, he is also called Nidana Buddha,

Pratyeka Buddha 辟支佛:(Pali. Patiekan, Singh. Pase Buddha, Burm. Pte

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Lo-hu-lo ……………, Rahula. – One of the Four Great Disciples, or Bikshus (supra).  The eldest son of Sakyamuni by Yasodhara, also called Rahula-mata, or Rahula’s mother.  Dwells in the Priyangudvipa region, or “Land of Millet” (some translate “Chestnuts”).  Converted to Buddhism, he followed his father as an attendant and disciple.  Was distinguished for his diligent study of the Canon and his uncompromising strictness in carrying out the rules of his profession.  After his father’s death, he became the founder of a philosophical realistic school.  It is his lot to die and return to the world as the eldest son of every future Buddha.  He is not to pass finally out of existence for many ages.  He appeared as a very old bikshu with white bushy eyebrows to a Buddhist layman at a town not very far from Kusinagara sometime before the period of Hsuan Tsang ………….. (seventh century A.D.).  When the layman ga

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这五个是关于佛陀的和要求所有僧伽都要受持的五戒

  • (1) that monks should dwell all their lives in the forest,
  •  和尚应该在森林里居住
  • (2) that they should accept no invitations to meals, but live entirely on alms obtained by begging,
  • 他们应该接受吃饭的邀请,但是完全靠乞讨生活。
  • (3) that they should wear only robes made of discarded rags and accept no robes from the laity,
  • 他们应该仅仅接受用破布制成的袍子并且不接受门外汉的袍子
  • (4) that they should dwell at the foot of a tree and not under a roof,
  •  他们应该住在大树下面而不是在屋檐下
  • (5) that they should abstain completely from fish and flesh.
  •    他们应该完全戒除鱼和肉

The Buddha's reply was that those who felt so inclined could follow these rules - except that of sleeping under a tree during the rainy season - but he refused to make the rules obligatory. This refusal delighted Devadatta, who went about

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Cakkavati-raja The ideal king of righteousness according to Buddhist tradition.

Cakkavati-raja: 根据佛教传统的正义之王的理想

Cāpāla-cetiya : Here the Buddha, three months before his parinibbāna, definitely decided to accede to the request of Māra that he should die. When he announced this decision the earth shook. Buddha in his life, states that during the first twenty years of the Buddha's ministry, he sometimes dwelt in Cāpāla-cetiya. It was once the residence  was erected on the site for the use of the Buddha.

Cāpāla-cetiya ::这是佛,在他涅磐三个月以后,明确决定接受Mara的邀请就是他将死了。当宣布这个决定后大地震动。佛陀在他的生命中,宣布在佛陀掌教的第一个二十年,他有时候会住在Cāpāla-cetiya。这是为佛陀使用建立起来的居住地。

Celestial flower which appears on earth only on special occasions, particularly in connection with the chief events in

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Asoka : King of Magadha. He was the son of Bindusāra. Bindusāra had sixteen wives who bore him 101 sons. In order to purge the Order of undesirable monks and heretical doctrines, Moggaliputta-Tissa held the Third Council under the king's patronagev

阿育王:摩竭陀的国王。他是Bindusāra的儿子。 Bindusāra有16个妻子他们为他生了101个儿子。为了清除不良僧侣和异端教义,Moggaliputta-Tissa在国王的保护下举行了第三次会议。

 

Asura :  (Ashura in Sanskrit, Asura in Pali). It is a peculiar path in the Six Paths. They are the enemies of the devas, and are the mightiest of all demons. In terms of material enjoyment and psychic power, it is similar to Deva. However, in some aspects, it is even worse than the Human Path. The male Asura is extremely ugly and furious, and they always fight with e

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